- The combined results of 12 experimental studies indicate a positive relationship between voluntary music study and math achievement.
Vaughn, K. (2000). Music and mathematics: Modest support for the oft-claimed relationship. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(3/4), 149-66.
- Multiple studies indicate that early music instruction is linked to significant improvements in students’ spatial reasoning abilities.
- Hetland, L. (2000). Learning to make music enhances spatial reasoning. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(3-4), 179-238.
- Graziano, A.B., Peterson, M., & Shaw, G. L. (1999). Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial temporal reasoning. Neurological Research, 21, 139-52.
- Rauscher, F.H., and Zupan, M.A. (1999). Classroom keyboard instruction improves kindergarten children’s spatial-temporal performance: A field study. Manuscript in press, Early Childhood Research Quarterly.
- Gromko, J., & Poorman, A. (1998). The effect of music training on preschoolers’ spatial- temporal task performance. Journal of Research in Music Education, 46, 173-181.
- Rauscher, F., Shaw, G., Levine, L., Wright, E., Dennis, W., & Newcomb, R. (1997). Music training causes long-term enhancement of preschool children’s spatial-temporal reasoning. Neurological, Research, 19(1), 2.