2006 Research Poster Session I Abstracts – Part 2

2006 MENC National Conference Research Poster Session Abstracts


Research Poster Session I Research Poster Session II Research Poster Session III
Part 1   •   Part 2 Part 1   •   Part 2 Part 1   •   Part 2

Research Poster Session I, Part 2

Madura (Ward-Steinman), Patrice pwardste@indiana.edu
Indiana University

Teaching Improvisation According to the National Standards for Arts Education: Vocal Jazz Workshop Participants’ Confidence Levels in 1998 through 2005

The purposes of this study were 1) to examine vocal jazz workshop participants’ confidence in teaching improvisation according to the K-12 National Standards for Arts Education; and 2) to explore whether a six-week workshop in vocal jazz would significantly affect confidence. The first sample included 151 participants at four vocal jazz improvisation workshops at state and national conventions. 83 subjects completed the survey in 1998 and 68 in 2004-2005. Participants rated their confidence in teaching 12 improvisation skills, their own improvisation ability and their interest in learning more about teaching improvisation. Results indicated that music teachers lack confidence in teaching improvisation, and that confidence levels decline as student grade levels increase. Most means were higher in 2004-2005 than in 1998, but the difference was statistically nonsignificant. Teachers rated their own ability to improvise moderately low, but their interest in learning more about how to teach improvisation was the highest rated item. The most preferred ways to learn included conference sessions and summer workshops. Thirteen music education majors participated in a six-week vocal jazz workshop that included research-based improvisation instruction. A significant increase in teaching confidence was found. This study suggests that there is a strong need for more teacher workshops and courses in improvisation.

Maynard, Lisa M. Lisa_Maynard@Baylor.edu
Marks, Brian
Baylor University

The Effect of Visualization Training on Sight-Reading Accuracy at the Piano

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of utilizing visual stimuli (keyboard charts) to improve the accuracy of pianists’ sight-reading skills. Subjects (N=30) were middle and high school-aged students attending a university’s summer piano camp. Two groups of subjects were instructed to spend 3 minutes visually examining a short excerpt of music chosen to match their current level of music proficiency. Each subject was then videotaped performing the same excerpt. Subjects were asked to prepare a second previously unseen musical excerpt of similar difficulty. Control group subjects once again visually examined the excerpt for 3 minutes, and were then videotaped performing it. Experimental group subjects studied the same score for 3-minutes using a printed representation of a keyboard to indicate the structure of each chord. Performances were then videotaped. Data were collected by evaluating the accuracy of six specific elements of effective music sight-reading performance: note errors, rhythmic errors, repeated notes, tempo fluctuations, hesitations, and omissions. Individual subject’s error scores were calculated and combined with those of other subjects from their assigned treatment group. Mean scores for observed errors in both performances were then calculated and compared between and within the two groups. Results suggested that the use of visual keyboard training may be highly effective in improving the note accuracy of students learning to sight-read. Following their exposure to the visual keyboard chart, subjects in the experimental group performed with almost half the number of note errors (M=7.38) than subjects in the control group (M=13.15).

McDowell, Carol cmcdowell@semo.edu
Southeast Missouri State University

Parents’ Viewpoints Concerning the Value of Kindermusik Summer Camps

The purpose of this study was to determine the value of a summer Kindermusik camp to parents of participants. Using data from a parents’ survey, the author examined factors that influenced parents to enroll their children in a five-day summer music camp that was sponsored by the local arts council. General inquiries included: (a) What were the determining factors for enrolling your child in the class?, (b) What activities did your child enjoy/value the most?, (c) What musical activities do you and your child participate in at home?, and (d) What activities did you (the parents) participate in at home or while you were in school? Kindermusik is an early-childhood music and movement program for children (ages birth to seven years) and their families. Analysis of the surveys revealed that parents enrolled their children in order to learn about new music activities to share together, develop in their children skills to help them in day care, and have fun sharing music. Implications of early-childhood teacher training and previous parent involvement in music are discussed.

Millican, Si smillican@ou.edu
University of Oklahoma

A Survey of Music-Teacher Mentors and Protégés Regarding Their Teaching Concerns and Mentor-Program Satisfaction

This study identified and compared concerns of music teachers (N = 117) participating in a mentor program sponsored by a statewide music educators’ association. An anonymous, online survey was used to collect data. Overall satisfaction levels of participants were compared to pair time, meeting frequency, and subject equivalency of mentor-protégé pairs. Mentors’ perceptions of their protégés’ concerns were compared with the concerns protégés actually reported. Concerns of first-year teachers were compared with those of teachers with one to three years’ experience. Satisfaction levels were low when participants were not paired or paired slowly and when meetings between mentors and protégés were infrequent. Overall anxiety levels were lower for teachers with more experience, but classroom management issues remained the foremost concern. Teachers with more experience ranked parent interactions and instructional planning higher on their list of concerns than did first-year teachers.

Morrison, Steven J. sjmorris@u.washington.edu
Treviño, Alexander R.
Sielert, Vern
University of Washington

Jazz Expertise and its Relationship to Pitch and Rhythm Placement among Trumpet Players

In this study, graduate and undergraduate trumpet students were asked to replicate a 16-measure jazz solo using a written transcription and the original solo recording. We divided subjects into two groups based on level of jazz experience. Performances were recorded and analyzed comparing pitch, onset and duration of 12 selected target pitches with those of the original recording. No differences were found for any of the three variables between experience groups or between recordings made with a full accompaniment and those made with only metronome clicks. Differences in direction of pitch error were also not significant. Significant differences were observed in direction of onset error when subjects were accompanied only by the metronome.

Norris, Charles E. norrisc@gvsu.edu
Grand Valley State University
Borst, James D.
East Kentwood High School, Kentwood, Michigan

An Examination of the Reliabilities of Two Choral Festival Adjudication Forms

The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability of a common festival adjudication tool that is used to assess performance of secondary school choirs with that of a second tool that is a more descriptive extension of the first. Specific research questions compare the inter-rater reliability of each form, the differences in mean scores of all dimensions between the forms, and the concurrent validity of the forms. Four choral music educators listened to and numerically evaluated recordings of 15 high school choir performances with two different adjudication forms. Subjects first used a common but generic festival rating (adjudication) form followed by use of a rubric that contained specific descriptors for each dimension. Each form utilized the same dimensions and numerical computation. Analysis of Pearson product moment correlations between all possible pairs of judges determined that the inter-rater reliability for the second form was much higher than that of the traditional festival form. Analysis also showed that the performances were evaluated much stricter using the second form. Finally, observed moderate correlations between the two forms further support the notion that the two forms measured the dimensions in somewhat different ways, suggesting the second form offered more specific direction in the evaluation of the choral performances. The authors suggested continued development of language and descriptors within a rubric that might result in increased levels of inter-rater reliability.

O’Herron, Patricia poherron@earthlink.net
Fontana, California Schools
Siebenaler, Dennis
California State University, Fullerton

Issues in Music Modeling within Kindergarten Language Arts Curricula

Phonemic awareness (PA), is described by reading specialists as the ability to hear and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of language. Prosody, a function of fluency, focuses on the ability to put words together into natural speech rhythm, inflection and flow. This paper discusses the interaction of vocal music skill development within phonemic awareness and fluency training in kindergarten and grade one language arts instruction. The phonemic awareness and fluency activities provided in language arts curricula are often music related: songs, chants and rhymes. Research is discussed regarding children’s auditory processing, music perception, speech articulation, phonemic awareness and prosody. The room acoustics and pedagogical strategies necessary for developmentally-appropriate music modeling are defined.

Palmquist, Jane JaneP@brooklyn.cuny.edu
Brooklyn College
Goodrich, Kathlene
Marcus High School, Flower Mound, Texas

Preliminary Analysis of Beginning String Methods Repertoire

Music selections (N = 693) in four current heterogeneous class string method books (Strictly Strings; Essential Elements 2000; Spotlight on Strings, and String Explorer) were categorized by indicated source and attribution. Categories for analysis included: classical composer, American folk music, folk music from countries or regions other than the U.S. Non-attributed extant melodies were also identified, and included in an analysis of most frequently occurring melodies. Melodies by classical composers (n = 51) comprised 7% of the melodies overall, and 30% of attributed melodies. Melodies by Bach and Beethoven were the most frequently occurring of the classical composers (6 occurrences each). Of classical composers, only melodies attributed to Beethoven and Mozart occurred in all four books. The three most frequently-occurring melodies attributed to classical composers included: Ode to Joy (Beethoven); Can-Can (Offenbach); and the William Tell Overture (Rossini). Folk music melodies attributed to the U.S. (n = 20) accounted for 3% of melodies overall, and 26% of all attributed folk music. Folk music from countries other than the U.S. (n = 57 comprised 74% of all attributed folk music. Melodies from England, France, and Mexico appeared in all four books, and were also the most frequently occurring overall. Five folk or non-attributed melodies appearing in all four books were Au clair de la lune, French Folk Song, Hot Cross Buns, Jingle Bells, and Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star. Directions for additional and further research are discussed.

Parkes, Kelly A. kparkes@umsis.miami.edu
University of Miami
Florida International University

Music Performance Faculty Perceptions about Grading

The purpose of this research was to identify performance faculty perceptions about grading, at the college level, in the applied studio setting. A secondary purpose was to examine if training in grading affected these perceptions. Levels of teacher training are defined as having any instruction (formal or informal, at any higher education level) in the skills of teaching, pedagogy, grading, and/ or communication skills. An invitation was sent to all performance faculty listed in the College Music Society who had an email address listed on their institution’s website (n=1015). Only performance faculty from brass, woodwind and percussion departments were solicited and a final sample of n = 162 was used. Results showed statistically significant difference in the grading perceptions in the group of faculty who had received training in how to grade compared to the group who had not received any training. This result should be approached with caution due to the small n=34 of faculty who had received training compared to the n=128 of faculty who had not received training. Implications from the data analysis suggest that faculty hold a wide variety of perceptions toward grading in general and faculty hold more positive perceptions about grading if they are given training in how to grade. These findings show a difference in how faculty respond to a survey about grading if they have had training in how to grade. These differences also may affect the processes by which faculty grade in the college studio setting.

Pickren, Catherine Grant ctygrant@bellsouth.net
Argosy University

An Ex Post Facto Study Regarding Keyboard Instruction and Reading Achievement

Today’s political climate of increasingly high expectations for education is not going away. With President George W. Bush’s mandate of “No Child Left Behind”, states are now beginning to realize how critical it is that children learn to read. Many reading reforms have been developed as well as innovative methodologies to increase reading achievement. Realizing that children learn differently, educators often experiment and design their own pedagogical strategies to enhance learning. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference between students experiencing music training using the Keyboard Reading Enhancer Methodology designed by this researcher, and reading achievement. Fifth grade 2003 and 2004 Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) reading scores (i.e., this test is required for all public school children in the state of Georgia), and the final 4th and 5th grade 2003 and 2004 reading grades for students attending a small elementary school located in Southeast Georgia were collected as data. A significant difference at the .05 level was found in the 5th grade 2003-2004 CRCT reading scores, as well as the 4th and 5th grade 2003-2004 reading grades between students experiencing the keyboard-reading enhancer training and those who did not. Significant differences at the .05 level also occurred between genders who received the keyboard-reading enhancer training. In the 4th grade reading grades, the male students experiencing the training methodology exhibited a 2.44 increase above the mean. Both the female and male students experiencing the keyboard-reading enhancer training in the 5th grade demonstrated an increase above the mean in reading achievement, with the 5th grade male students showing more mean increase than the 5th grade female students.

Pinar, Colleen colleenpinar@yahoo.com
Independent Scholar

The Effect of Background Music in Fostering a Relaxed Learning Environment: A Meta-analysis

The purpose of this study is to analyze existing quantitative research evaluating the effect of background music in fostering a relaxed learning environment. A meta-analysis was conducted on ten research studies. Results indicated that background music was effective in promoting relaxation in stressful situation. This supports the potential for using music in the classroom to create an environment for learning while dispelling the theory that music is only for the music classroom and that prescription medicine is the only viable treatment for hyperactivity and stress in the classroom for certain students. Further quantitative research is recommended and strongly warranted to refine unique aspects of background music to foster a relaxed learning environment.

Reinhardt, Deborah dreinhardt@csuchico.edu
California State University, Chico

The Effect of Kodaly Instruction on the Reading and Math Scores of Second and Third Grade Students

The reading and mathematics achievement scores of second grade students attending two different cohort schools were compared. One school offered no music instruction and the other offered a Kodaly-based program. These were significant differences in the math achievement scores for both grades. There were no significant differences in the reading achievement scores.

Rickels, David A. darickel@mpsaz.org
Westwood High School, Mesa, Arizona
Arizona State University

A Comparison of Contributing Variables in Arizona Marching Band Festival Results

This study investigated the relationships between scores at high school marching band festivals during the 2004 Arizona marching season and 16 potential contributing variables of each band. Directors of 115 schools that participated in such festivals were invited by electronic mail to complete an on-line questionnaire using the internet. The data were examined using Pearson product-moment coefficients, ANOVA tests, and t tests. Variables found to have significant relationships with festival scores included marching band budget, total band program budget, number of part-time assistant/non-certified marching staff, marching band enrollment, total band program enrollment, number of festivals attended, school enrollment, and manner of integration of concert band programs. Analysis of variables of teacher’s years of experience, teacher’s years at current school, number of full-time certified staff, rehearsal hours per week, school geographic locale, internal program co-participation requirements, school Title-I status, or director’s rank of marching band priority among other band programs did not reveal any significant relationships to festival scores.

Schmidt, Charles P. schmidtc@indiana.edu
Baker, Rhonda
Hayes, Beth
Kwan, Eva
Indiana University

A Descriptive Study of Public School Music Curricula in Indiana

This study investigated public school music curricula in general music, choral, band, and string programs within Indiana. Music program characteristics were examined in relation to the school demographic characteristics of enrollment, percentage of minority students, and percentage of students on free lunch. Indiana public school corporations (N=98) were randomly selected (sampling rate=33%). Response rate by school corporation was 100% and final response rate for the total sample of music teachers (N=619) was 63.1% (N=391). Data were gathered by means of a survey. Teachers provided information concerning (a) music curricular offerings areas by area and grade level; (b) teaching load and instructional contact time; and, (c) class enrollments and performance activities. For each school corporation sampled, archival data were obtained from the State Department of Education and the Indiana State School Music Association. Among the results, wide variability was found in music program characteristics, enrollment, participation rate, and performance activity. Approximately 64% of the sample indicated general music as at least part of their teaching load. Teaching load was significantly correlated with time allocations for five of seven instructional activities in general music. Mean student participation rates in music by school varied across strings (12 %), band (20%), and choral (30% ). Percentages for students on free lunch and minority students were generally not correlated with other variables, including participation rates in music. At the secondary level, school and ensemble enrollments and amount of instructional time were generally not correlated with numbers of performances. Festival performance ratings for high school ensembles were generally high. String programs were reported for approximately 16% of the sample school corporations and those that offered strings had relatively large district enrollments.

Sheldon, Deborah A. dsheldon@temple.edu
Temple University

High School Musicians’ Identification of Musical Expression through Figurative Language and Musical Terminology

This study focused on listeners’(N = 172 high school musicians) ability to identify nuances of musical expression using figurative language and specific music terminology. Participants were quite successful in identifying general categories of expression; they were not nearly as accurate in identifying the precise figurative statement or term used by the performer to guide the performance. Neither figurative statements nor terminology appeared to be a factor in response accuracy. The use of specific terminology or figurative language in teaching and interpreting musical events may be similarly effective. The influence of sound manipulation by the performer appeared to be mixed. Flute examples yielded the highest correct response rates overall; violin and clarinet yielded the lowest. Further inquiry into the role that performance practice on a specific medium plays in a listener’s ability to expressive nuance is required before any definitive conclusions might be drawn.

Sims, Wendy L. simsw@missouri.edu
Udtaisuk, Dneya
University of Missouri–Columbia

Music’s Representation in Parenting Magazines: A Content Analysis

The purpose of this study was to investigate the types, quantity, and quality of information regarding music that parents of young children receive from parenting magazines. Content analysis procedures were used to obtain and analyze the data for this study. All 2004 issues of the three most widely circulated parenting magazines in the U.S were examined, for a total of 6698 pages. Text or photos from articles or advertisements in which music, musical topics, or musical objects were mentioned explicitly or portrayed clearly served as the data points for this study. Music was featured as the primary topic in only five articles or columns, and there were 103 mentions in articles that included information or advice about a variety of non-musical topics. While music was represented with reasonable frequency and accuracy in these magazines, the messages readers received about music’s role in children’s and families’ lives were primarily utilitarian—music’s role for stress reduction and entertainment accounted for approximately half of the items. Music educators should take responsibility proactively to write for these magazines, or contact editorial staff and see how we can assist with providing more and better quality information to their readers.

Skidmore, Margaret margaret.skidmore@emich.edu
Patrick, Louise
Eastern Michigan University

Classroom Teachers Speak: How Elementary Educators Use Music in Their Classrooms and What They Believe Should Be Included in a Music Course for Prospective Teachers—A Pilot Survey

Designing relevant undergraduate music courses for prospective elementary classroom teachers can be a challenge for collegiate music educators. Program exit outcomes, state certification exams, selected text foci and instructors’ personal beliefs often guide the make-up of such offerings, however, students enrolled in these required classes often complain and question the relevance of their content. In an effort to redesign such a course, elementary classroom teachers (N=18), from 26 school districts, completed a pilot survey about how they use music in their classroom and what they viewed as important in training prospective teachers. An online survey was sent to elementary administrators who were instructed to share the survey with their faculty. Results of the survey indicated that, if teachers used music, it was primarily as background to other activities and secondarily, in an integrative capacity. Language arts and literacy/reading were cited as most conducive to an interdisciplinary approach whereas science and history were viewed as least. Respondents further noted three barriers that limited their use of music, i.e., lack of time, experience and resources. When asked to design a course for prospective teachers, respondents suggested that over 50% of the instruction focus on integrative approaches, resources and transitional uses of music with only 25% devoted to ‘foundational’ instruction. No one suggested that a required music course for these students was irrelevant and should be eliminated.

Sogin, David W. sogin@uky.edu
Wang, Cecilia C.
University of Kentucky

Music Activity Reports by Music Teachers with Varying Training in Orff-Schulwerk

The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of various music activities occurring in music teachers’ classroom and whether the activities are influenced by amount of Schulwerk training received. The subjects were participants in an Orff – Schulwerk certification program at three different levels of training at a large university. Teachers were asked to report about musical activities typically conducted under their guidance in their own classroom. A questionnaire was used successfully to obtain the data. Results from the self-report of 49 participants indicate that there are similarities as well as differences among music teachers of three levels of Orff training. Similarities include the amount of activities devoted to Reading, Listening, and Singing. The Impact of the Orff – Schulwerk training is suggested most prominently in Playing, Creating and Moving. It appears that with increased training teachers increase their activities with the children rather then shifting them from other events.

Stover, Pamela pstover@siu.edu
Southern Illinois University–Carbondale

Wir Singen und Musizieren: Sequence and Materials in the 1948-49 Orff-Schulwerk Schulfunk Broadcasts on Radio München

On September 15, 1948 the first radio broadcast of “Wir singen und musizieren” was sent by Radio München to classrooms in Bavaria. This marked the first time that the Orff-Schulwerk process was used with children as musicians. The teaching process is documented in the reel to reel tapes of the broadcasts, the written material in the Schulfunk Hefts, typed manuscripts by Gertrud Orff and Gunild Keetman with the approval from Carl Orff, and the music manuscripts in Keetman’s hand. These Orff- Schulwerk broadcasts used children as singers and instrumentalists, in addition to seven adult musicians and an announcer. This particular series of broadcasts aired for three seasons, from 1948-1951, and were the catalyst for the “Musik für Kinder” publications in five volumes. This report will document the sequence of concepts and song material used in the broadcasts and how they broadcasts correlate to “Musik für Kinder” (Schott, German edition) as well as the Murray “Music for Children” (Schott, English edition) volumes. Primary sources held at the Orff- Zentrum München and the Bayerische Rundfunk were triangulated with published sources such as the “Jahrplan” German state music curriculum of the time. The results from the first year of the broadcasts include a sol-mi-la-do-re pentatonic melodic sequence, using an open fifth bordun on do-sol in the key of C. The instrumentation includes harpsichord, glasses, glockenspiels, xylophones and metalophones as well as unpitched percussion, recorders, guitar, lute, bass and burdon, a special stringed instrument designed to play an open fifth.

Taylor, Donald M dtaylor@music.unt.edu
University of North Texas

Refining Learned Repertoire in an Orff Ensemble Setting

The purpose of this study was to examine the rehearsal strategies of recognized Orff Schulwerk instructors as they worked to refine learned repertoire for percussion instruments. Eight instructors and their upper elementary students were videotaped in four regular rehearsals. Systematic analyses of rehearsal frames in which teachers were working to improve student performance revealed fast teacher pacing and a predominance of instructional directives that were procedural (e.g., where to begin playing) rather than musical (e.g., how to perform more accurately or expressively). The majority of students’ performance problems were related to precision, often caused by rushing the underlying pulse. Teacher targets were most often related to technique. Students successfully accomplished proximal goals in 63% of the performance trials in which the targets were verbalized by the teacher prior to performance and in 74% of the performance trials when the targets were verbalized by the teachers while students were playing. Students were most successful when teachers utilized clear, explicit directives and positive modeling.

Tobin, R. Nicholas Nicholas_Tobin@uml.edu
University of Massachusetts Lowell

A Study of the Music, Academic, Leadership, and Extracurricular Achievements of Massachusetts All-State Participants

Researchers have noted that the personal attributes of high school all-state participants have not been probed and have expressed surprise at this void in the music education literature. (Cole, 1986; Fuller, 1989; Welker, 1997) It was the purpose of this study to ascertain, through participant self-report data, the activities and accomplishments of Massachusetts all-state musicians in four areas of student endeavor: music, academics, leadership, and extracurricular activities. Massachusetts all-state participants are high achievers not only in music but also in academics, honors, student government, leadership, athletics, service, and extracurricular activities. Suggestions for further research include broadening similar studies to other states and other disciplines to attempt to isolate characteristics of all-state students.

Varley, Paul paul_varley@clayton.k12.mo.us
Clayton, Missouri Schools
University of Missouri–St. Louis

An Analysis of Rhythm Systems in the United States—Their Development and Frequency of Use by Teachers, Students, and Authors; and Relation to Perceived Learning Preferences

One of the issues facing music educators is the way in which they teach students to read rhythms accurately. This study examined the published rhythm systems dating back to the early nineteenth century, surveyed band students in grades 7-12 concerning their preferences in learning rhythms and their learning styles, surveyed music teachers concerning their background in teaching rhythms and their preferences, and surveyed the available method books along with many of their authors. The results of the study showed that a majority music educators were taught and teach rhythms to their students using the Harr system. To a lesser degree, the Kodály and mnemonic systems are used. Although there seems to a relation between how students were taught to read rhythms and which systems they use, there seems to be no relation to their learning styles. Although an examination of the available literature revealed that some research has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of certain rhythm systems, the survey indicated that most music educators are unaware of any research in this area. When asked if they were presented with research showing another system to be more effective than the one they currently use, most music teachers were unsure if they would switch to the more effective system. The researcher concluded that more study is needed in the area of rhythm pedagogy to determine different approaches of teaching rhythm in order to appeal to the various learning styles of students.

Walliczek, Terri LOL21t@yahoo.com
Matawan, New Jersey Schools

Reasons for Instrumental Student Dropout Rates between Elementary and Middle School Band Programs, as Perceived by New Jersey High School Band Students

This study examines the survey responses of 55 wind-band students in a New Jersey public high school and their beliefs for causes of dropout rates between elementary and middle school band programs. These students were asked to rank their top two reasons for joining band in school, and whether or not they ever chose to, or thought about quitting band between grades four and eight. Results show that the most important reason for students to begin a band program stems from an enjoyment of music and the desire to learn a musical instrument, followed by the influence of a parent. Participants cited feeling inadequate or not good enough on their instrument, followed by not wanting to practice or not liking to practice their instrument, as the top two reasons for student dropout in instrumental music. Students in unified schools also stated that friends quitting band was the most important reason for dropout. Ultimately, more than half of the participants surveyed cited internal reasons for dropout in band programs between grades four and eight.

Warnock, Emery C. ecwarnock@aol.com
Richmond Hill Middle School, Richmond Hill, Georgia

Gender and Attraction: Predicting Middle School Performance Ensemble Participation

The purpose of this study was to predict middle school sixth graders’ group membership in band (n = 81), chorus (n = 45), and as non-participants in music performance ensembles (n = 127), as determined by gender and factors on the Attraction toward School Performance Ensemble (ATSPE) Scale (? = .88). Students completed the ATSPE as elementary fifth graders and were classified into group membership after enrolling into middle school. Six factors on the ATPSE and gender were programmed as predictors in a direct discriminant function analysis. Results show that gender (.898), parental encouragement (.715), and a negative relationship concerning future ambitions in school music (-.633) were the only significant predictors of membership in band and in the group classified as non-participants in music performance ensembles. Two discriminant functions were calculated, accounting for 61% and 39%, respectively, of the between-group variability of all three groups. Parental encouragement and future ambitions in school music distinguished between band and the other two groups (first discriminant function). Gender distinguished between both music groups and the non-participants (second discriminant function). Surprisingly, a prediction of chorus could not be made in this study, F (250) = 1.685, p = .195. A correct classification on 58.9% of the students was made; a 57.7% classification rate could be made after cross-validation of the student cases. Findings suggest that the stronger parental encouragement is toward school music, the greater a prediction can be made of middle school sixth graders’ school performance ensemble participation.

Williamson, Sue sue.williamson@colorado.edu
University of Colorado, Boulder

“My Music”: The Out of School Music Making Experiences of Non-Performing Middle School Students

The purpose of this study is to present a profile of music making experiences of middle school students not enrolled in school performing groups. Twenty-one seventh and eighth grade students not enrolled in school music ensembles were studied. For the purposes of this study, the course normally offered to the students, “Study Skills”, was substituted for an informal class, designed and taught by the researcher, entitled “My Music”. Data collection techniques included: Personal semi-structured interviews, peer interviews, photographic representations of their musical experiences, group think-alouds and class discussions. Three levels of data coding were used to develop emergent themes. Within-case analysis (Miles & Huberman, 1994) and cross-case analysis (Janesick, 1994; Miles & Huberman, 1994) were utilized. The majority of students (fifteen of twenty-one) were not involved in music making experiences outside the school environment. However, six students engaged in a variety of music making activities including: 1) composition and improvisation, 2) small ensemble participation, 3) individual lessons, 4) scheduled practicing, 5) spontaneous music making, and 6) making music with family members. School music experiences were found to be the main provider of musical instruction and the primary reason students stopped making music. In most cases, the students cited their dislike of the music teacher as the primary reason they did not continue in school music. It was found that the more intensely the student dislike the teacher, the less likely the student was to be engaged in music making outside the school environment.

Youm, Hyun-Kyung youmh@missouri.edu
University of Missouri–Columbia

Processes Used by Music, Visual Arts, Media, and First Grade Classroom Teachers for Developing and Implementing an Integrated Curriculum: A Case Study

The purpose of this study was to examine the processes used by three first grade classroom teachers and three arts team (music, visual-arts, and media) teachers to develop and implement an integrated curriculum. The implementation aspect of this study focuses on the integrated music classes. Participants were all staff members at a public elementary school in the Midwest that has an arts-focused curriculum. Data included observations of the teachers’ planning meeting and the integrated class sessions, interviews, documents, and artifacts. Analysis was based on the notes taken, transcriptions, and review of videotapes, using open and axial coding. Six steps of development of the integrated curriculum were found: scheduling, determining topics, teachers’ planning, preparing for class activities, implementation, and evaluation, while four steps were found in implementation of the integrated music classes: warm-up activity, review of previous lessons, conducting activities, and preview of the next class’ activities. It was discovered that the classroom and arts teachers had both distinct roles and shared roles in development and implementation. Teachers’ collaboration, ongoing informal communication, co-teaching, and decision-making were found to be the main characteristics of the entire process of development and implementation of integrated classes.