2006 Research Poster Session II Abstracts – Part 1

2006 MENC National Conference Research Poster Session Abstracts


Research Poster Session I Research Poster Session II Research Poster Session III
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11:30 AM

Research Poster Session II

Addo, Akosua Obuo addox002@umn.edu
University of Minnesota

Transformational Learning: Music and Culture in Situ

This is a field study of global arts understanding and transformations of students participating an undergraduate academic course designed to provide opportunities for global arts understanding through an immersion experience in an international context. The research questions are: 1. What elements of the arts did the students consider as global? 2. What procedures did Ghanaian artists use for teaching music and culture? 3. What transformations took place in the lives of the students and how did they articulate their personal transformations. Students’ written reflections in journals, audio-recorded interviews, teaching and learning events and performances were transcribed, and analyzed. Initial results showed international arts understanding depend on identity formation, critical listening skills, collaboration, spontaneous individual expression and a shift in thinking.

Albert, Daniel J. djajr@comcast.net
Longmeadow, Massachusetts Schools

Instrumental Music Teachers’ Strategies to Recruit and Retain Band Students in a Low Socioeconomic School Districts

Research indicates that socioeconomic status (SES) may be a factor in recruiting and retaining instrumental music students. The purpose of this study was to examine the strategies by which instrumental music teachers recruit and retain students in low SES school districts. Participants included middle school instrumental music teachers of high participation programs in low socioeconomic school districts, their building administrators, and parents. School district criteria for participation included consistent school building population in instrumental music programs and Federal Free and Reduced Lunch records. Method was case study utilizing multiple interviews and observation data including responses to authors’ questions and field notes. Results suggest that proactive teacher strategies, culturally relevant ensembles, and student ownership of ensemble processes can aid in recruiting and retaining in low SES districts.

Andrews, Stephanie K. Stephanie_Andrews@baylor.edu
Baylor University

Maria Montessori and Gunild Keetman: A Comparison of Philosophies and Pedagogical Techniques

This historical study focuses on Maria Montessori and Gunild Keetman, who were instrumental in the development of the Montessori approach to education and the Orff Schulwerk approach to music education, respectively. A thorough review of literature revealed that these two outstanding educators had remarkable similarities in their educational philosophies, sharing common beliefs in the importance of educating the whole child and employing active approaches to learning. In both the Montessori and Orff approaches to education, emphasis is on cooperation, not competition. Education becomes an active, child-centered, joyous experience in which the child accepts responsibility for his or her own learning. A review of the literature also brought to light several marked differences in traditional education and the Montessori/Orff approach, including the value and necessity of play as an integral part of a child’s education as well as a fundamental respect for intuition, imagination, and spirituality. Interviews were conducted with prominent Montessori and Orff educators to obtain the personal perspective and insight unique to teachers with a lifetime of Montessori or Orff educational experience as well as firsthand or secondhand knowledge of Maria Montessori and Gunild Keetman. In these interviews, each educator was questioned to obtain background information, personal recollections of Montessori or Keetman, and their perceptions of the individual’s educational approaches. Each educator was also asked to discuss what they believed to be Montessori’s and Keetman’s most significant contributions to education as well as the implications of each woman’s work for the future of education.

Ballard, Dennis L. dballard@indstate.edu
Indiana State University

Relationships between Wind Instrumentalists’ Achievement in Intonation Perception and Performance

Undergraduate wind instrument majors’ (N=60) perceptual and performance intonation achievement were measured and compared on seven separate tasks. Paired tasks between perception and performance that examined both melodic and harmonic contexts were included. Stimuli in multiple tuning conditions (equal temperament, Pythagorean, and just intonation) were incorporated in both perceptual and performance tasks, and participant achievement differences were compared across conditions. Vocal performances were contrasted with instrumental performances as well as perception. No significant correlations were found between any of the seven tasks. Differences by tuning condition were mixed. Vocal performances were significantly less accurate than instrumental performances. Melodic context stimuli produced significantly better results than harmonic contexts on the perceptual tasks as well as both the instrumental and vocal performance tasks. Recommendations for future research and implications for teaching are discussed.

Bazan, Dale E. dale.bazan@case.edu
Case Western Reserve University

An Investigation of the Process by Which Elementary School Band Directors Prepare Students to Choose a Musical Instrument

The present study investigated the instrument selection processes used by directors of beginning bands in a Midwestern state. What general procedures and timelines band directors used, whether gender bias was perceived to exist, and whether prior research was applicable to Midwest band programs were the major research questions. Directors of beginning bands were identified (N = 332) and sixty (n = 60) were randomly selected to complete a questionnaire. Of the random sample, 38 questionnaires were returned representing a 63% return rate. It was found that playing tests and analysis of students’ physical characteristics were the most frequently used tests and procedures informing the matching of students to instruments. The participants rarely used tests such as Gordon’s ITPT or MAP during the instrument selection process. A majority of directors stated that the instrument selection process was not addressed at all (21%) or briefly mentioned (58%) during undergraduate training rather than dealt with in some detail (21%). Further, directors developed their selection processes through experience and not by training received during college. A majority of directors (53%) agreed or strongly agreed that gender stereotyping exists in Midwest band programs and seventy-nine percent (79%) did take steps to address this issue.

Bernhard II, H. Christian bernhard@fredonia.edu
State University of New York at Fredonia

The Long-term Effect of Tonal Training on the Melodic Ear Playing Achievement of Beginning Wind Instrumentalists

The purpose of the study was to determine the long-term effect of tonal training on the melodic ear playing achievement of beginning wind instrumentalists. Subjects were 42 sixth grade beginning band students who had previously participated in an investigation regarding the effects of tonal training, as applied using standard method book melodies, on the melodic ear playing and sight reading achievement. In the initial study, tonal training had significantly affected melodic ear playing achievement (p < .001), but not melodic sight reading achievement (p > .05). Five months following completion of the initial study, all subjects were re-tested for melodic ear playing achievement using identical procedures from the first test administration. During the five-month hiatus, all students had returned to a traditional style of instruction. A 2 x 2 mixed-design analysis of variance regarding subjects’ long-term ear playing achievement revealed significant effects for treatment group (p < .05), as well as group and time interactions (p < .001), but not for time (p > .05). Analysis of group means revealed that, while experimental group scores remained greater than control group scores, the average control group performance had improved and the average experimental group performance had deteriorated. These results suggest that continued traditional experience with band instruments may slowly improve ear playing achievement, while long-term benefits of tonal training may gradually diminish.

Bright, Jeff brightjr@nsuok.edu
Northeastern State University

Outstanding Band Students’ Career Attitudes

The purpose of this study was to investigate the career choice attitudes of outstanding band students. A researcher developed survey instrument was used to gather demographic information as well as assess the career choice attitudes of outstanding band students in eight different categories. Six hundred ten college band students from nine different institutions of higher education in Oklahoma and Arkansas completed and returned the survey. A chi-square analysis revealed that females who selected music education as a career were significantly less in number than expected. A univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) also produced significant differences between the two academic major groups (musiceducation and other major) for high school grade point average. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed and revealed significant differences in career choice attitudes between the two academic majors. An ANOVA test on each of the eight career choice scales revealed significant differences in attitudes between the two academic major groups for parent influence, teacher influence, ego satisfaction, confidence in talent, interest, and economic considerations while there were no significant differences for status and experience. Finally, a discriminant analysis was performed to determine which attitudes could best predict an outstanding band student’s selection of academic major (music education or other). The discriminant analysis produced six variables (attitudes) that correctly classified 82.9% of the originally grouped cases.

Bryant, Dorothy bryantd@ohio.edu
Young, Sylvester Ohio University

An Investigation of the Effect of Service Learning on the Student Teaching Experience in Music Teacher Education

The purpose of this two-phase study was to determine if prior experience with service learning would have an effect on the student teaching experience. Subjects were student teachers (n = 12, 2004) (n=10, 2005) from a Midwestern university. Ten of the subjects participated in a service-learning course prior to student teaching. The data includes written reflections, think-aloud protocol while viewing a videotaped segment of their own teaching, and the Survey of Teaching Effectiveness (an evaluation instrument resulting in a numerical score that represents teaching effectiveness), which was completed by the supervising and cooperating teachers. The Multiple Protocol Analysis System (MPAS) was used to assign codes (self-centered, subject-centered, or student-centered) to the think-aloud protocol text files. The research questions were: (1) Will there be a difference between the two groups, Service Learning (SL) and Non-service learning (NSL), on their progress toward the teacher role, as stated by the Fuller Three Phase Model of Teacher Concerns (self, subject,student) (Fuller, 1969) (2) Will prior experience with service learning have an effect on the reflective process during the student teaching experience? and (3) Will there be a difference between the two groups on their teaching effectiveness as measured by Survey of Teaching Effectiveness (STE) (Hamann & Baker, 1996; Fant, (1996); Paul et al., 2002)? Results indicate that the students who participated in the service learning experience prior to student teaching had a higher percent of student-centered think-aloud statements and had more student-centered written reflections. No difference was found between the SL and NSL groups on the total STE score.

Bueno, Viviane F.
Universidade de São Paulo
de Macedo, Elizeu C.
Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo, Brazil
Dekaney, Elisa M. emdekane@syr.edu
Syracuse University

Children’s Interpretation of Emotions in Music Through the Use of Schematic Faces

The present study has evaluated the musical emotions in children ranging from 5 to 9 years of age. The study used five schematic faces which represented the following emotions: happiness, anger, fear, sadness, and surprise. The schematic faces were used as a non-verbal evaluation instrument of fourteen segments of different styles of popular music. Eighty-two children participated in the study. Each child had to choose the face they believed best represented the emotion each piece of music they were listening for conveyed. Results show that the factors which presented significant influence in the choice of music were the child’s age and the style of music. Children of all age ranges were able to correctly identify the five emotions conveyed in the music segments. The ability to correctly identify the five emotions increased proportionally with age. Children’s evaluation pattern of the emotional states in relation to popular music was similar to other studies performed using classical music.

Carter, Bruce icr8moosic@aol.com
Northwestern University

The Effects of Compositional Study on the Musical Awareness of Secondary Music Students

This four-week study examined the effect of compositional study on secondary band and orchestra students. The extent to which compositional study affected student musical awareness was investigated. Participants were secondary music students enrolled in the top-performing band and orchestra ensembles at James Madison High School in Fairfax County, Virginia. The composition curriculum used was designed by the researcher and focused on notated musical examples drawn from pitch sets using a clock face model. Students in the experimental group (orchestra) received four composition lessons over four consecutive weekends for an hour and a half. The control group (band) did not receive composition lessons. A pretest-posttest design using Olson’s Measurement for Musical Awareness was employed to evaluate the effect of composition training. An ANOVA was used with repeated measures of Test (Pre and Post), Item (each of the evaluated), Scale (response to the 39 items vs. confidence in those responses) and music (the two musical excerpts). Significant differences were found using the Greenhouse Geisser significance value between the following groups: item and group .20, scale and item .18, and test and scale .14. A significant difference was also found between the test, item and music. However, the experimental group observed fewer items than the control group after the treatment period.

Chen-Hafteck, Lily lhafteck@kean.edu
Kean University

Effects of Sociocultural Approach to Multicultural Music Education: A Multiple Case Study on an Interdisciplinary Program in Chinese Music and Culture

The present research is a multiple case study. It investigated the effects of an interdisciplinary program on Chinese music and culture that is based on sociocultural approach to multicultural music education. The program was introduced to 250 fifth- and sixth-grade children in three schools. Reports and questionnaires were collected from the teachers, students, evaluator and administrator. Documentation of students’ work was also examined. Qualitative analysis was conducted to study the context and effects of the program on each school. It was found that whether multicultural music education experience can lead to positive cultural understanding and attitude depends on many factors, including teachers’ attitude, teaching approach and the students’ learning environment. It was suggested that a flexible student-centered curriculum using the sociocultural approach, carried out through a collaborated effort between the music teachers and general class teachers, with performance opportunities and demonstration by authentic musicians, can enhance the positive effects of multicultural music education. Such effects include increase in cultural and musical knowledge, learning motivation, positive attitude towards people from other cultures, and self-confidence and identity for students from the minority cultures.

Cohen, Mary L. macohenks@spamcop.net
University of Kansas

An Investigation of Participating in a U.S. Midwestern Male Prison Choir

The purpose of this mixed method investigation was to explore experiences of participants (N=44) in an inmate-volunteer choir. Data were obtained first from a survey of prison choir participants (inmates n=20 and volunteers n=24). Subsequent data included interviews (inmates n=17 and volunteers n=12), material culture, field notes, and research participation. Results from survey data provided a demographic profile of participants and indicated significant agreement among inmates and volunteers that participation in this choir: (a) allowed participants a means to a peak experience allowing stresses to disappear momentarily, and (b) provided a sense of accomplishment. Among significant variations between inmate and volunteer responses: (a) inmates perceived their choir experiences as contributing to improvement in intrapersonal skills more than volunteers, and (b) volunteers reported that they could identify out of tune singing better than inmates. Emergent themes from qualitative data were that choir experiences gave inmates and volunteer singers a process to gain a broadened perspective of others, and the experience improved inmates’ self esteem. A grounded theory was formulated from data analysis suggesting that experiences in this prison choir carried potential for transformative change.

Darrow, Alice-Ann aadarrow@fsu.edu
Novak, Julie
Florida State University

The Effect of Vision and Hearing Loss on Listeners’ Perception of Referential Meaning in Music

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of vision and hearing loss on listeners’ perception of referential meaning in music. Participants were students at a state school for the deaf and blind, and students with typical hearing and vision who attended neighboring public schools (N = 96). The music stimuli consisted of six 37-second randomly ordered excerpts from Saint Saëns, Carnival of the Animals. The excerpts were chosen because of their use in similar studies and the composer’s clearly intended meaning. After allowing for appropriate procedural accommodations for participants with hearing or vision loss, all participants were asked to select the image portrayed by the music. A Univariate ANOVA was computed to address the research question, “Do students with vision or hearing loss assign the same visual images to music as students without such sensory losses?” Data were analyzed to examine the effects of sensory condition as well as age and gender. A significant main effect was found for sensory condition, with follow up tests indicating that participants with typical hearing and vision agreed with the composer’s intended meaning significantly more often than did participants with vision or hearing loss. No significant main effects were found for gender or age, and no significant interactions were found. Summary data indicated that selected images were more easily identified, or were more difficult to identify across conditions. The data also revealed an order of difficulty and patterns of confusion that were similar across sensory conditions and ages, indicating participant responses were not random, and that some referential meaning in music is conventional.

Droe, Kevin droe@uni.edu
University of Northern Iowa

Effects of Teacher Approval and Disapproval of Music on Middle School Students’ Music Preference

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of approvals and disapprovals about the music from the teacher on the students’ preference for the music. Eight middle schools participated in the study with students (N = 440) ranging from sixth to eighth grade. Each of the eight schools was assigned a different treatment condition. Teachers were given either one or two pieces to rehearse with their most advanced level band while giving treatment comments (approval, disapproval, or instruction only) that were provided in a score. Teachers rehearsed the piece(s) for a total of five rehearsals. After the fifth rehearsal, students were given a listening survey to rate their preference for six examples of band music including the two pieces that were used in the study. Results of this study indicate that the treatment conditions had a significant effect on preference. Approval was not significantly different than instruction only or no experience, but significantly different than disapproval in both pieces. The approval condition increased the students’ reported music preference more than the disapproval condition. Results of this study could be useful to music educators to increase student preference for music performed in class and to improve the music classroom experience. Future research should incorporate actual concert music and include concert performance as a factor that may influence music preference.

Ebie, Brian D. ebie@email.arizona.edu
Hamann, Donald L.
University of Arizona

University Music Students’ Perceptions of Skills and Abilities Needed to Teach in Music Classroom Situations Outside of Their Familiar Music Expertise

The purpose of this study was to investigate university music students’ perceptions of skills and abilities needed to teach in music classroom situations outside of their familiar music expertise. Additionally, the authors sought to determine if subjects believed that participation in music education methods courses would provide adequate training to address concerns they might have about teaching outside their area of familiarity. One hundred fifty-nine music majors enrolled in music methods courses during the 2005-2006 academic year participated in this study. Through the use of a free response, open-ended questionnaire subjects were asked to candidly and honestly assess their concerns about teaching in a musical area outside of their familiar music expertise. The authors found that subjects had thought about and could express concerns about teaching outside their area of familiarity, were confident that their training in college music education methods courses could provide them with the skills they needed to be effective teachers, and believed that these courses would provide enough knowledge and experience to alleviate their concerns at this point in their careers. Implications for music education are discussed.

Ester, Don P. kturner@bsu.edu
Turner, Kristin M.
Ball State University

The Impact of a School Loaner-Instrument Program on the Attitudes and Achievement of Low-Income Music Students

This study was an investigation of the impact of a loaner-instrument program on the attitudes and achievement of music students in an urban middle school. Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Instrument Status served as independent variables. Participants (N = 245) completed surveys at the beginning and end of the school year, responding to statements related to general attitudes and attitudes toward studying music. In addition, the subjects and their teachers completed posttest surveys regarding the students’ musical, academic, and personal growth. Analysis included paired-sample t-tests and ANOVA. Results indicate that lower-income music students playing school instruments (SI) demonstrate equal achievement to all other instrumental students and that SI subjects were unaffected by the differences identified between SES groups. Implications are that philanthropic organizations and school music educators could cooperate to provide the parallel requirements of access to instruments and access to quality instruction to benefit lower-income students.

Flood, Margaret J. mjf04e@garnet.acns.fsu.edu
Florida State University

Differences in Definitions of Multicultural Music Education and World Music Education

The purpose of this study was to determine how music education graduate students and ethnomusicology graduate students distinguish the difference between the terms multicultural music education and world music education. The researcher reviewed literature on multicultural education, multicultural music education, and world music education, in order to see how the terms are the same or different according to researchers and professionals in the fields of music education and ethnomusicology. A survey was administered to ethnomusicology and music education graduate students that consisted of eight current practices of either multicultural music education or world music education. Participants were asked to identify each practice as either multicultural music education or world music education. Correct answers were sought by comparing Campbell’s definitions of these terms (Campbell, 2004) to the practices on the survey. These answers were then compared to those given by the participants. Results indicate there are differences in definitions among various scholars. The data resulting from the survey indicates that there is a significant difference in perceptions of the definitions of these two terms between music education and ethnomusicology graduate students. Results show that music education graduate students agreed with Campbell’s definitions (Campbell, 2004) more frequently than ethnomusicology graduate students.

Fredrickson, William E. fredricksonw@umkc.edu
University of Missouri–Kansas City

Perceptions of College Music Performance Majors Teaching Applied Lessons

The present study was designed to examine the reflections of college music performance majors who were teaching private music lessons using journals written by the subjects. Subjects (N = 12) were music performance majors (upper division undergraduate, n = 1, masters, n = 4, and doctoral, n = 7) enrolled in a one-semester pedagogy class. Students were instructed to keep the journal during one private lesson of their choice per week. If they were not currently teaching the instructor helped them find a student to work with during the class. Journals included a daily prediction, or expectation score, regarding how they thought the lesson would go, a brief summary the lesson’s activities, specific comments about the best and worst aspect of their teaching, the best and worst aspects of student learning, and an evaluation score indicating how well the lesson had gone. Results indicated initial expectations of lessons that were consistently lower than lesson evaluations after the fact, teacher concerns about student motivation and practice, and a relatively low connection between teacher perceptions of the best and worst aspects of their teaching with the best and worst aspects of student learning. Directions for future research include continued objective evaluation of cause-and-effect relationships between teaching and learning in one-on-one situations, evaluation of career goals and opportunities for college-level music performance majors, and pedagogical content and focus for musicians studying music teaching in higher education.

Fuller, Lynnda Nunn lynnda.fuller@ttu.edu
Texas Tech University and Scappoose, Oregon Schools

History of the Kodály Method in Oregon (1964-1974)

The purpose of the present study was to determine by what means the Kodály method was transmitted to music educators in the United States and more specifically into the state of Oregon. The first ten years of the Kodály movement in the state of Oregon were documented through oral history interviews and correspondence with individuals involved in the process. Past issues of The Oregon Music Educator, journal of the Oregon Music Educators Association, were examined for corroborating evidence to triangulate information provided by interviewees. Additional sources included dissertations on related subjects and articles appearing in other professional journals. Oregon music educators first learned of the Kodály method of music education from Dr. Katinka Dániel at the 1964 at a music educators’ conference sponsored by the University of Oregon in Eugene. Dániel, a native of Hungary, worked with Jenö Ádám and Zoltán Kodály in Hungary and brought an authentic example of the Kodály method to Oregon. Three interviews with Dániel made significant contributions to the research. Mary Helen Richards also presented workshops in the state of Oregon. Richards flew to Oregon for the University of Oregon’s 1964 conference at the request of Katinka Dániel. Richards brought proto types of her Threshold to Music charts and Oregon music educators ordered 300 sets prior to publication. Norman Weeks, a founding member of the Organization of American Kodály Educators presented workshops in Oregon from 1969- 1973.

Gault, Brent M. bgault@indiana.edu
Indiana University

Musical/Textual Factors Involved in Song Selection for the Elementary General Music Classroom

This purpose of this study was to investigate the musical and textual elements that related closely to specific song choices in the elementary general music curriculum. Participants (N = 55) in six, summer music education workshops used the Song Usability Rubric (SUR) to evaluate the melodic, rhythmic, and textual elements of 10 selected songs with regard to their use in a second-grade general music curriculum. Results indicated significant correlations between all items on the rubric and the overall score for each song. Significant correlations between rubric items indicated the possibility of underlying factors related to song choice. A factor analysis identified 2 factors accounting for 72% of the variance between items. Participants in the study seemed to focus primarily on issues related to melodic content and ability to develop singings skills when evaluating songs. The appropriateness of a given text and a song’s ability to maintain the interest of second-grade students were also strong factors related to repertoire selection.

Goins, Katherine R. katiegoins@mail.utexas.edu
University of Texas at Austin

The Music Teacher Selection Process

Brochures and websites from 15 suburban music schools or private teachers were analyzed in terms of their content, and 77 parents of music students were asked about the factors that influenced their choice of a music teacher or program and their choice of other teachers or programs for their children. Results indicate that 53% of parents surveyed did not think the process of choosing a music teacher or program is different than that of choosing another teacher or program for their children. The analyses showed a significant difference (p=.043) in the teacher selection process (different: yes or no) of parents who had not and parents who had taken private lessons in the past. 58% of parents who had taken private lessons in the past thought a difference exists in the process of selecting a music teacher for their children, as opposed to the selection of other activity teachers, while only 32% of parents who had not taken private lessons thought there was a difference in the selection process. Significant differences were found between parents who thought a difference exists in the teacher selection process and parents who thought no difference exists and the value they placed on program reputation (p = .01), program philosophy (p = .02), and teachers (p = .04). 82% of participants identified word of mouth as their most influential advertising source, with 52% citing a recommendation from family or friends as most important. Implications for teaching and advertising are discussed.

Grashel, John tsetseam@uiuc.edu
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Twenty-Seven Years of Historical Research in the Journal of Research in Music Education: Introduction and Article Abstracts

The purpose of this investigation is to identify historical research articles published in the Journal of Research in Music Education from 1953 through 1980, providing abstracts of their contents. During this 27-year period, 92 historical articles were published. The study concludes in 1980, the first year of publication of The Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education.

Grossman, Deena T. deena@moonbridge.com
Oak Grove Elementary School, Milwaukie, Oregon
Jacqueline Waggoner
University of Portland

The Effects of Body Mapping Lessons on the Musical Performance of Elementary Students

Many musicians suffer limitation, strain, pain and injury resulting from how they move when they play. The purpose of this study is to describe and understand the effects of six brief Body Mapping lessons on the musical performance of elementary string students. Teaching students about how the body is structured and how they move when they play can help them to play with more ease and less strain, promoting facility and preventing injury. The participants are twelve violin students and two cello students ranging in age from eight to eleven years old. Video pretests and posttests of individual student performances before and after the Body Mapping lessons were analyzed and scored to evaluate the effects of the Body Mapping lessons on the students’ balance, movement and tone while sitting and playing. There was measurable, statistically significant improvement in all these parameters demonstrated by the participants.

Hagen, Sara L. sara.hagen@vcsu.edu
Valley City State University, Valley City, North Dakota

Preference of Eye Guidance in Music Reading at the Computer: A Pilot Study

This investigation sought to provide insight into preference for one of the four most prevalent computer eye guidance systems used in performance or CAI programs. The four most common guidance systems are the vertical sweep, highlighted measure, outlined measure, and note-by-note karaoke-style eye guides. Subjects performed on MIDI keyboards reading from four different screens, playing the same music each time. Results suggest that all of the systems may be useful for different learners. A three-way preference emerged with nearly equivalent scores for the sweep, highlighted measure for both hands, and note-by-note systems. Software used in the study was Finale 2006, Home Concert 2000, and Band in a Box 2005. Since 64% of the subjects (14 of 22) had never performed from computer screens while performing on MIDI keyboards, the results were widely varied and this pilot study pointed to a number of factors to consider in a study of this type. Overall, subjects thought they would use the computer for musical score reading more in the future in areas such as rhythm practice, composing, and performing with computerized accompaniments. Issues regarding improvements for the study and for further exploration of this kind are suggested.

Hamilton, Hilree J. hilree.hamilton@uwrf.edu
University of Wisconsin–River Falls

Listen and Learn—A Case Study Analysis of a Student and Teacher Collaboration

The purposes of this project were first, to examine the teaching and learning of a student who collaborated with me in a curriculum-writing project. Students in the course, “Music Education I,” wrote listening lessons for the pieces of music the school orchestra played in the annual Young Person’s Concert. My student collaborator, Kami, worked with students in Music Ed I through this process. Second, I was interested in how Kami’s influence affected the learning experience for students. Third, I wanted to learn more about case study research and the narrative style of writing. I studied materials related to case study research and used them to guide the writing of this report. Data sources including journals, surveys, and artifacts documented that Kami’s model had a positive impact on students in the class. Her lesson plan provided class members with an example that helped them in planning lessons and presentations for peer teaching and field experience. The results for students were lessons with more depth and stronger performances in both peer teaching and teaching elementary children in local schools. Kami’s biggest frustration was that she was not able to get a strong response from music teachers in local schools to attend the concert. Her experience points to a need to continue developing dissemination plans and communication with local schools. This will help us reach our larger goal of preparing elementary children to listen with depth to works of music in an orchestra concert.

Hayes, Beth thayes@indiana.edu
Indiana University

Intonation Achievement by Middle School Flutists, Clarinetists, and Trumpeters

The purpose of this study was to explore intonation of middle school wind players in relation to the instrument performed, number of years experience, and the consistency of intonation across repeated trials. Participants were seventh and eighth grade students with 1-3 years of experience who played the flute, clarinet, or trumpet (N=51). In an isolated pitch matching task, participants performed 13 pitches, 3 trials each for a total of 39 items. Participants heard and then played pitches taken from a descending, chromatic, concert C scale. Acoustic data were analyzed as deviations in cents from the target pitch. The interjudge reliability was very high (r=.98). Participants’ consistency of performance across trials was moderately high (á=.86). Likewise, there was no significant mean difference across three trials. The mean pitch deviation for all participants was approximately 20 cents but variance was large; consequently, the mean pitch deviation ranged from 2 to 38 cents depending upon the participant. The pitches C5, F#4, and C#4 were the best predictors for overall intonation for flute, clarinet, and trumpet respectively. Additionally, a rank order of the most in tune pitches performed by each instrument was determined. The best and worst pitches in order were Eb4 and D4 for the flute, A4 and D4 for the clarinet, and B4 and C4 for the trumpet. There were nonsignificant differences in intonation achievement by instrument, years of experience, and trials. Interaction effects were nonsignificant with the exception of instrument by experience.

Hedden, Debra Gordon dhedden@ku.edu
University of Kansas

Alice Carey Inskeep (1875-1942): A Pioneering Iowa Music Educator and MENC Founding Member

Alice Carey Inskeep (1875-1942) was born in Ottumwa, Iowa and taught for five years in that city’s school system upon graduation from high school. She served as music supervisor in Cedar Rapids, Iowa for most of the remainder of her career, where she provided progressive leadership to the schools and community. She was one of three people appointed to plan the initial meeting in Keokuk, Iowa for what is now the MENC: The National Association for Music Education (MENC), and she was one of the sixty-nine founding members of the organization in 1907. Later, she sat on the organization’s nominating committee (1912) and board of directors (1915-20, chair in 1919-20). She was elected to the first Educational Council (1918), precursor to the current Music Education Research Council, completed a major status study, the first national course of study in school music, and the first major curriculum for the training of music supervisors in the United States. The Keokuk meeting served as an impetus for her to travel to Chicago, where she studied with William L. Tomlins, Jessie L. Gaynor, Thomas Tapper, Emma Thomas, W. Otto Miessner, and other notable music educators. Later, she served the organization’s North Central Division (board of directors, 1931-33) and one of its affiliates, the Iowa Music Educators Association (founding board of directors, 1938). She served as a part-time or summer faculty member at Iowa State Normal School in Cedar Falls, Coe College (Cedar Rapids, IA), and the American Institute of Normal Methods in Evanston, Illinois and Auburndale, Massachusetts. Alice Carey Inskeep was one of many once-prominent women whose contributions deserve more attention today.

Hewitt, Michael P mphewitt@umd.edu
University of Maryland

Influence of Primary Performance Instrument and Education Level on Music Performance Assessment

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships that education level and primary performance instrument have on the performance evaluation of junior high trumpet players. Participants (N = 423) in the study were middle school (n = 187), high school (n = 113), and college (n = 123) musicians who performed on either a brass (n = 115) or non-brass (n = 301) instruments. Participants evaluated performances of the Gigue from King’s French Suite for Trumpet using the Solo Evaluation component of the WBSEF. Prior to the evaluations they received training in the use of the form, heard an ideal performance of the Gigue, and practiced evaluating a sample performance. Results indicated statistically significant findings on six subareas for the interaction of education level and performer, and significant main effects for primary instrument, education level and performer. Follow-up univariate analyses for the statistically significant interaction of education level and performer found statistically significant results for tone, melodic accuracy, intonation, rhythmic accuracy, tempo, and technique/articulation, but not for interpretation. For much subarea x performer interactions, middle and high school students rated performances lower than did college students. Perhaps the experiences college students have with concentrated focus on music theory and analysis, extended applied instruction, and studio master classes helped formulate this ability. If this were indeed the case, incorporating activities that help to develop these skills in middle and high school instrumental rehearsals may be prudent. Brass players rated melodic accuracy than non-brass players across all performers.

Hourigan, Ryan ryanmh@umich.edu
University of Michigan

The Use of Student-written Cases in Music Teacher Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of student-written cases as part of an instrumental music methods course. Research questions included: (a) What are the positive and negative issues associated with student-written cases? (b) What are preservice music teachers’ perceptions as to the value of case-writing as part of an instrumental music methods class? Five preservice instrumental music students who were enrolled in music teacher education at a large Midwestern university agreed to participate in this study. A qualitative comparable case study design (Merriam, 1998) was used in this investigation. Student-written cases, researcher’s feedback and interviews with the participants served as data for this study. Positive issues included: student reflection, and the building of music teacher identity through revisions and feedback. Negative issues included: lack of time, the need for discussion of cases, and the need for peer feedback. Participants expressed that case-writing was a valuable activity.

Jellison, Judith A. jjellison@mail.utexas.edu
Scott, Laurie P.
Chappell, Elizabeth W.
Standridge, Amy A.
University of Texas at Austin

Talking with Teachers about Inclusion: Perceptions, Opinions, Experiences

Most information concerning teachers’ attitudes regarding inclusion comes from studies conducted decades ago. The purpose of this study was to examine issues prevalent in previous studies (e.g., support services) and issues not yet studied (e.g., parent contact, effects on teachers). Four research questions examined the following issues: information, support, resources, and placement; parent contact and involvement; effects of inclusion on students with and students without disabilities and the teacher in and outside of school; and teacher advice. Trained interviewers met individually with 43 teachers (16 elementary, 15 orchestra, 12 band). The study followed established methodology for instrument construction, interviewing, and data analysis. Perceived emotional content for teachers’ responses was assessed. Results show more access to support and more positive attitudes from teachers regarding support than previous studies. Consistent with previous studies were positive attitudes regarding the effects of inclusion on both students with and without disabilities. Teachers offered insights as to the reasons for these outcomes. Several differences and consistencies among the groups lead to questions that merit research on possible relationships between variables (parent contact, type of support, teacher attitudes).

Karas, James B. jkaras2@unl.edu
University of Nebraska–Lincoln

The Effect of Aural and Improvisatory Instruction on Fifth Grade Band Students’ Sight-Reading Ability

The purpose of this study was to determine if the development of aural and improvisatory skills and/or previous music instruction has an effect on fifth grade students’ ability to sight-read traditional music notation. The teachers used two different instructional strategies. At one school, the teacher used a traditional skill-based approach. At the other school, the teacher added aural/improvisational activities grounded in Gordon’s Music Learning Theory (Gordon, 1997). After being given the Intermediate Measures of Music Audition (Gordon, 1978) and a brief questionnaire regarding previous private music instruction, the students were engaged in 16 weeks of traditional skills-based or enhanced aural/improvisational instruction. Accuracy of rhythm and pitch was measured by Smart Music Studio (2002). Four judges were also employed to test the reliability and validity of the Smart Music Studio (2002) assessment capability. There was an interaction between level of tonal aptitude and type of instruction. Students with low scores on the aptitude test who participated in the supplemental activities, scored higher on the posttest than low aptitude scorers using the traditional method. Students with high scores on the aptitude test who participated in the supplemental activities scored lower on the posttest than high aptitude scorers using the traditional method.

Kelly, Steven N. skelly@admin.fsu.edu
Florida State University

An Investigation Regarding the Accuracy of Supervising Teachers’ Written Assessments of Student Teaching Performance Practices

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the accuracy of public school supervising teachers’ written assessment comments as they relate to NCATE approved evaluation criteria. Specifically, this investigation seeks to determine if written feedback comments made by supervising teachers accurately reflect program approved evaluation criteria. The supervising teachers of 97 randomly selected student teachers completed a cumulative final evaluation form containing twelve nationally approved skill and behavioral variables. Completion of the form required written feedback responses to each variable. The written feedback responses were to be based on definitions and models of each variable that were provided on the evaluation form. The results indicated that only four variables had more accurate feedback responses than inaccurate responses. The variable of assessment had the most accurate feedback responses. The continuous improvement variable had the most inaccurate responses. The results call into question the following: 1) the qualifications and training of supervising teachers to provide accurate written feedback to interning student teachers, and 2) the need to provide clear evaluation forms, including specific skills and behaviors, when assessing interns.

Killian, Janice N. janice.killian@ttu.edu
Texas Tech University
Baker, Vicki D.
University of Texas-Arlington
Johnson, Michael D.
Lincoln University, Jefferson City, Missouri

The Perceived Value of Professional Memberships among Texas Pre-Service and Early-Career Music Educators

This study was designed to consider the extent to which early-career music educators are aware of the values of professional organizations and when in their training this awareness occurs. We surveyed early-career music educators (n=233) and senior music education students from 8 Texas universities (n=89) regarding their knowledge of professional organizations, their own professional memberships, and their perceived benefits of those memberships. Survey results indicated that most respondents (96% teachers, 74% students) belonged to their state organization. MENC membership contained many more college students (62.9%) than current teachers (21.5%). Further analysis indicated little difference between college students and early-career music educators regarding number of professional memberships (2.22 vs. 2.45), and numbers of conferences attended yearly (1.57 vs. 2.03). Students in general were either familiar with many of the acronyms of the music education professional organizations or at least were aware of what they didn’t know (overall average percentage of correct responses = 43.3%, incorrect = 10.0% and no response = 46.9%). Teachers (44.4%) and students (29.2%) agreed that convention and workshops were most valuable benefit of membership. Students valued mentoring (14.6%) more frequently than did teachers (1.8%). Little agreement was found regarding additional services that could be provided. Teachers mentioned classroom management, technology issues, specific instrumental pedagogy, and mentoring. Students did not, raising questions about when these issues become important.

Latimer, Jr., Marvin E. mlatimer@ku.edu
University of Kansas

Correlation between Speaking Fundamental Frequency and Lowest Fundamental Frequency in Trained and Untrained Singers: A Pilot Study

This study was an investigation of the correlation between habitual (mean) speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) and lowest singing fundamental frequency (LFF) in the voices of trained and untrained singers. Test participants were thirty (N=30) undergraduate and graduate students. Fifteen participants (n=15) were trained student singers and fifteen participants (n=15) were untrained student singers. All participants were enrolled in the Music Education and Music Therapy Department at The University of Kansas. The participants first sang descending scale passages to determine LFF and then spoke predetermined speech tasks to elicit SFF. The researcher recorded and analyzed SFF samples with Amadeus II acoustical analysis software, assigned SFF and LFF numeric designations corresponding to the number of semi-tones above a reference pitch (C2, 65.41 Hz), and evaluated the numeric designations of SFF and LFF using a Spearman Correlation Coefficient Test. The results revealed a high correlation between SFF and LFF in both trained and untrained test subjects. The researcher calculated test-retest correlation coefficients of five randomly selected participants using a Spearman Correlation Coefficient Test. The test-retest results revealed a high correlation indicating reliability of SFF and LFF identification.

Lewis, Barbara E. barbara_lewis@und.nodak.edu
University of North Dakota

Manuel Garcia: Vocal Registration Theory for the Secondary Music Teacher

Manuel Patricio Rodriquèz Garcia was born in Madrid on March 17, 1805 into an internationally famous family of singers. His father Manuel del Popolo Vicente Garcia (1775-1832), sometimes referred to in the literature as Garcia père, or Garcia I, was a leading tenor, prolific composer, and influential voice teacher of the time. Garcia II, a baritone, had a truncated performing career. By 1829 his reviews were so negative that he decided to give up the stage and embark on a distinguished and lengthy career as a voice pedagogue. In 1855 he invented the laryngoscope and used it to further his understanding of the workings of the voice, allowing him to be one of the first to apply scientific principles to voice teaching. One of the topics about which he wrote extensively was vocal registration.