2006 Research Poster Session III Abstracts – Part 2

2006 MENC National Conference Research Poster Session Abstracts


Research Poster Session I Research Poster Session II Research Poster Session III
Part 1   •   Part 2 Part 1   •   Part 2 Part 1   •   Part 2

Research Poster Session III, Part 2 Maugars, Cedricia cedricia.maugars@gmail.com Université Paris Sorbonne Attitudes of Music Teachers Concerning Final Examinations in the French Music Conservatoires The aim of this research was to understand the attitudes concerning assessment of music teachers in Brittany, France. The relative significance attached to musical examination and the psychological attitudes of music teachers towards assessment will be examined. Participants (staff, students, teachers and directors of five music conservatories in Brittany) were interviewed and completed two Q-sorts in which twenty statements reflected attitudes towards music assessment. Results suggested that musical performances in the French Schools of Music are organized in a final and normative form. This paper will demonstrate how two different epistemological concepts, “evaluation” and “exam,” are seen as very similar in the opinions of music teachers. First, I will try to highlight the problems with musical evaluation in the specific context of the Brittany conservatories. Then, I will present the research problems with a review of questions and theoretical findings related to the examinations of high level musical performances (i.e. undergraduate). Lastly, I will present the methodology used to collect the data and the results and discussion.

McCrary, Jan mccrary.5@osu.edu The Ohio State University Ruffin, Milton Fort Hayes High School, Columbus, Ohio Seventh-Grade Music Ensemble Participants’ and Non-Ensemble Participants’ Academic Achievement and School Attendance The study investigated the effects of participation in a middle school music ensemble on academic achievement and attendance in an urban school. We examined the attendance records and grade reports of seventh-grade learners in a metropolitan middle school. For each learner, we examined the grade point average for the first six months of the 2004/2005 academic year, total number of days absent over the same period, and family income level. Overall, the learners enrolled in band had higher grade point averages and fewer absences than learners who were not enrolled in a music ensemble, regardless of family income and the differences were statistically significant. The study’s limitations are discussed.

Miksza, Peter pmiksza@indiana.edu Indiana University Self-Regulatory and Motivational Variables in the Music Practice of Junior High Band Students This study examined dimensions of self-regulation and motivation in the music practice of junior high school band students. A volunteer sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N=175) completed a 43-item, researcher-adapted questionnaire designed to measure the constructs of intrinsic motivation, attribution of success and failure, self-regulation, metacognition, and concentration as related to practice habits and beliefs. The questionnaire designed for this study drew from previous research in music education (e.g., McPherson & McCormick, 2000; Schmidt, in press), educational psychology (e.g., Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990), and psychology (e.g., Nowicki & Strickland, 1973). Data were also collected regarding subjects’ self-reports of practice efficiency, practice time per-day/per-session, and percentages of formal/informal practice. Factor analysis revealed five factors explaining 48% of the total variance: Concentration, Intrinsic-Goal Motivation, Intrinsic-Challenge Motivation, Metacognition-Reflective Strategies, and Commitment to Improve. Significant correlations were found between factor scores and self-reports of practice efficiency (r=.28 to .43), practicing time (r=.16 to .32), and formal/informal practicing (r=-.31 to .33).

Montemayor, Mark mark.montemayor@unco.edu University of Northern Colorado Rehearsal Achievement in High School Bands and Its Relationship to Selected Rehearsal Procedures and Evaluations of Teaching Effectiveness Thirty high school bands and their directors were audio- and video-recorded in two consecutive rehearsals of a novel musical selection which was the same for all participants. The recordings of those who remained part of the study (N = 29) were analyzed and evaluated to determine relationships among the following: (1) Teaching effectiveness, as evaluated by an expert panel using the Rehearsal Effectiveness Scale (Bergee, 1992), (2) ensemble a priori performance quality, and (3) a selected rehearsal procedure, namely the rate of teacher target identification, using rehearsal frames (Duke, 1994), as a model for analysis. Results demonstrated significant (p < .01) but modest correlations between teachers’ rehearsal effectiveness and their ensembles’ performance evaluations (r = .47 on Day 1, r = .52 on Day 2). Analysis of a random subset of participants’ Day 2 recordings (n = 16) demonstrated no significant correlations between the rate per minute of teachers’ target identification and rehearsal effectiveness, nor between target identification and a priori ensemble performance quality. These findings suggest that in these settings, ensemble quality is only partially explained by the teaching/rehearsing performance of the teacher, and that more careful attention to teacher judgment in the rehearsal process should be given when considering matters of teacher effectiveness.

Nierman, Glenn gnierman@unl.edu University of Nebraska–Lincoln Pearson, Bruce Pearson Music Education Services The Relationship of Paper/Pencil and Computer-based Assessment of Eye-Hand Coordination Skills Choosing the right instrument for beginning instrumental music study is an important decision faced by young students and their parents. The focus of this study is on the development of an eye-hand coordination subtest to aid this decision. More specifically, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of paper/pencil and computer-based assessment of eye-hand coordination skills. Subjects for this study were 264 fifth and sixth grade students, ages 10-12, who were asked to complete an exercise developed by Reynolds (1967) which asked them to look at a key containing nine symbols with a number below each symbol (circle, square, triangle, etc.) and then write with a pencil (or alternatively fill in a box on the computer screen by depressing a number) the number below the symbol as it appeared in the key. This was a timed test. Those students with more highly developed eye-hand coordination were able to fill in more numbers in the exercise than those with less developed skills in a two minute time period. The paper/pencil version was administered first, followed by a the computer version administered not more than 10 days apart. A high, positive correlation (r = +.822) was found between the scores on the two versions of the test, thus making it plausible for the test authors to proceed with the confidence that students’ relative scores were not markedly altered by utilizing the computer version of the test.

O’Hagin, Isabel Barbara ohagi1ib@cmich.edu Central Michigan University Young Children’s Improvisational Musical Play as Observed by Preservice Teachers The purpose of this study was to explore children’s improvisational music play, relationships and interactions with others while engaged in music-making, and preservice teachers’ understanding of children’s musical play. Preservice teachers (N=46) in an elementary music methods course at a moderate-sized Midwestern university observed children (ages 2-10) engaged in musical play (defined as any context other than a formal music lesson) and employed an observation form using narrative script. Data culled from the observation reports were analyzed either through a frequency distribution when applicable or through a text analysis in which reports were coded and categorized according to emergent themes or patterns of experience. A common theme among the novice researchers’ reports was children’s fluency and ease of communication while screating and sharing music, providing evidence of children’s shared understanding. Categories that emerged from children’s improvisational music-making were: (a) play-related songs and chants; (b) vocal improvisations; (c) singing improvised melodies; (d) singing within dramatizations as in “make-pretend” play; (e) improvising on instruments; (f) movement responses to music; and (g) rhythmical improvisations. Common themes that emerged were: (a) children’s ability to perform and create complex music; (b) music is seemingly always going through children’s heads; (c) some children have an internalized rhythmic understanding; (d) children’s spontaneous musical play is contextually interwoven with life’s activities, revealing a deep level of situatedness in music; (e) children’s musical play shows a high level of creativity and spontaneity; and (f) children’s ability to make music on their own.

Orman, Evelyn K. eorman1@lsu.edu Louisiana State University Price, Harry E. University of Oregon Content Analysis of Four National Music Conferences This was an examination of the content of the 2002 & 2004 MENC: The National Association for Music Education biennial national conferences, the 2002 & 2004 Midwest Band and Orchestra conferences, the 2003 & 2005 American Choral Directors Association (ACDA) conferences, and the 2002 & 2004 Orff-Schulwerk conferences. Each of the 2,302 sessions was examined and classified first according to category, which included business meetings, educational sessions, concerts and sessions that included concert performances, general and key focus sessions, and receptions. Next the sessions were classified according to subject areas including general music, performance, administration, teacher education, collegiate, conference sessions, research, technology, industry, exceptionalities, multi-cultural, and advocacy. We further analyzed the focus of each session. By far the largest proportion of categories of sessions at the MENC (74.2%), Midwest (47.5%) and Orff-Schulwerk (80.3%) conferences was education; however, performance (56.9%) was the largest proportion at the ACDA conferences. The predominant subject areas of sessions within education were found to be performance for ACDA (53.3%) and Midwest (42.8%), general music (47.1%) for Orff-Schulwerk and industry (42.3%) for MENC. Similarities and differences among conference offerings were noted. Trends for the MENC conferences as documented in past research were identified.

Orman, Evelyn K. eorman1@lsu.edu Yarbrough, Cornelia Whitaker, Jennifer A Louisiana State University Neill, Sheri Texas Christian University Time Usage of Middle and High School Band Directors in Sight-reading Adjudication The purpose of this study was to analyze the verbal instructions of middle and high school band directors in sight-reading adjudication. Subjects (N = 51) were middle (n=31) and high (n=20) school band directors participating in the sight-reading portion of a district-wide contest. They were videotaped during the instruction period only of the adjudication. We measured seconds spent in (1) presenting specific and nonspecific musical information; (2) giving directions; (3) counting metric beats; (4) giving social instruction; (5) off-task statements; (6) giving approvals and disapprovals; (7) student verbal statements; and (8) other which included time used for time keeper indications, judges warnings, interruptions and band director dialog that could not be understood. In addition, we categorized each specific and nonspecific presentation of musical information by musical element. Instruction in each musical element was timed in seconds. Results demonstrated that directors spent approximately 55% of their time delivering musical information and approximately 40% of their time giving directions and counting metric beats. There was very little difference in the use of instructional time by ensemble level, school level or those receiving I ratings as compared to those who did not receive I’s. Over one-fourth of the time was spent addressing rhythm. Rhythm and tempo were the only two musical elements addressed by all the directors followed by textural concerns, which were addressed by all but two of the directors.

Paise, Michele Paynter michele.paise@asu.edu Arizona State University A Survey of Adult Church Choir Members’ Attitudes toward Participation and Perceptions of Rehearsal Accommodations The following is a pilot study about adult church choir participants and their directors. Through the use of a questionnaire, adult choir members stated why they participated in church choir and what, if anything, would prevent them from doing so. Further, participants indicated health issues they experience while singing in the choir, such as difficulty hearing, seeing sheet music, catching their breath, standing long periods of time, and singing high pitches. Participants also stated whether their directors made accommodations for those health issues. Finally, adult choir members indicated how they perceived both themselves and their directors. The researcher found that most results of the questionnaire supported previous research. Questions concerning health-related issues, however, yielded data that were contrary to related research. Possible reasons are named and future research areas are suggested.

Palac, Judith A. Michigan State University Sogin, David W. sogin@uky.edu University of Kentucky Finger Dexterity and Hand Asymmetry in Young String Players and Non-String Players The present study seeks to discover differences between young string players and non-string players’ finger dexterity, particularly in their left or fingering hands, as measured by the 9-Hole-Pegboard Test, with age and playing experience, thus shedding more insight on the question of whether or not finger dexterity is an underlying motor ability in string performance. Fifty (n=50) right handed string playing subjects, as well as thirty – three (n=33) non-string playing subjects, were randomly selected from a community music school to participate in this study. They ranged in age from seven to fifteen years, and in playing experience. String players ranged from one to five or more years of formal string study. Results indicate that the right hand was faster than the left across and within groups and that all subjects’ dexterity increased significantly with age and years of training. However, years of formal musical training appears to be predictive for the left hand dexterity, which also increased significantly with years of formal study.

Phillips, Scott L. sphillips@transy.edu Transylvania University Contributing Factors to Music Attitude in Sixth-, Seventh-, and Eighth-grade Students This study explored the music attitudes of middle school students in relation to home musical environment and self-concept in music. These were analyzed by grade level, gender, and socioeconomic status. Participants were sixth-, seventh- and eighth-grade students (n = 2,180) from four middle schools in a Midwestern school district with eleven middle schools (N = 7,799). Students responded to 83 items in three surveys: The Music Attitude Scale, the Music Background Inventory, and the Self-concept in Music Scale. Correlations, t-tests, and one-way ANOVAs were used to analyze data. Results indicated that variance in music attitude could be attributed to home musical background (40%) and self-concept in music (45%). The correlation between home musical background and music attitude was considerably stronger for boys (r = .64) than for girls (r = .58), and music attitude was more closely correlated with girls’ self-concepts in music (r = .63) than their home musical environments (r = .58). Results showed a significant decrease (p < .05) in music attitudes for low-SES students by grade level. Girls’ music attitudes, home musical environments and self-concepts in music were found to be significantly higher (p < .05) than boys’ for all grades and SES levels. High-SES students reported significantly richer (p < .05) home musical environments than low-SES students. Self-concept in music significantly decreased (p < .05) as grade level increased for all middle school students. It was concluded that low SES level, poor home musical environment and low self-concept in music impact music attitudes negatively.

Pinar, Colleen colleenpinar@yahoo.com Independent Scholar Band Directors Sexual Misconduct: A Synthesis of Existing Literature The overwhelming majority of teachers are ethical professionals, creating safe environments for their students to learn, by positively impacting the lives of many young people. Still, sexual misconduct by school employees is a problem that has escalated over the years. The U. S. Department of Education commissioned a study to research educator sexual misconduct. This study concluded that the prevalence of educator sexual misconduct is not known, but estimates that millions of children may fall victim of it for the duration of their school education. The issue of educator sexual misconduct is understudied and despite the limitations of the existing research base (Hendrie, 2004) music teachers and more specifically band directors are unfortunately not exempt from educator sexual misconduct. On many aspects this research study will model Charol Shakeshaft’s report that was commissioned by the United States Department of Education titled Educator Sexual Misconduct: A synthesis of existing literature (2004). Thus her statement “a review of what we know about educator sexual misconduct tells us that in order to prevent incidents, we really need to know more about it” (Hendrie, 2004 p. 2) is equally fitting to this study.

Preston, Keith Y. kpreston@peoriaud.k12.az.us Peoria, Arizona Schools Humphreys, Jere T. Arizona State University Historical Research on Music Education and Music Therapy: Doctoral Dissertations of the Twentieth Century The purpose of this study was to examine selected characteristics and trends among doctoral dissertations written on music education and music therapy history in the United States during the twentieth century. Findings include: (1) biography increased in frequency as a topic in every decade, including a statistically significant increase in the 1990s; (2) female authorship increased significantly across decades until it reached statistical parity in the 1990s; (3) the top six degree-granting institutions remained unchanged in the 1990s from previous decades, but the 1990s saw significant shifts in regional and institutional output; and (4) there was a steady decline in the percentage of Ph.D.’s, a significant decline in the percentage of Ed.D.’s, and a significant increase in number and percentage of D.M.A.’s. The authors applied chi-square analysis to output and population data.

Price, Harry E. hprice@uoregon.edu University of Oregon Relationships among Conductor and Ensemble Performance Quality, and State Festival Ratings This study was the third in a series examining the relationship among conductors, ensembles’ performances, and festival ratings. Participants (N = 51) were asked to score the quality of video-only conducting and parallel audio-only excerpts of performances at a state-level concert festival of nine bands receiving ratings of Superior (I), Excellent (II), or Good (III). Participants were also asked to give reasons (N = 1,408) for the scores. The comments were used to provide insights into what participants focused on when deciding their scores and trends were found regarding aspects of conducting and performances that had positive and negative influences. There was no significant difference among scores for conducting across festival ratings; however, there were significant differences among ensemble performance scores, with bands receiving Superior ratings scoring significantly higher than those receiving ratings of Excellent or Good. No relationship was found between scores given conductors and their respective ensemble performances.

Price, Harry E. hprice@uoregon.edu University of Oregon Effect of Keyboard Ownership on Performance in a Music Fundamentals Course This study examined whether requiring undergraduate college nonmusic majors, enrolled in a music fundamentals course, to own a keyboard would enhance their keyboard skills. The course included instruction in reading notation, singing, and keyboard skills. There were two groups. One group owned keyboards and had them accessible at their homes for practice while the other group had to check out keyboards for use in the music building. Students’ keyboard skills were tested three times. There was no significant difference in keyboard performance data between groups. There was also no significant difference in overall student achievement, which included music reading, singing, rhythm accuracy and keyboard skills. While one might assume that students having ready access to their own keyboard at home would increase the likelihood of practice and therefore enhance their keyboard performance, as well as other music skills, that was not the case in this study.

Reinhardt, Deborah dreinhardt@csuchico.edu California State University, Chico Do I Like My Song? The Creative Products of Elementary Education Majors This qualitative study was designed to discover the structures that students used to create a song and to identify how the students describe, evaluate and revise their creative products. Five undergraduate students enrolled in a music methods class created an original song, listened to the piece, and were interviewed about the song, the way they remembered the song and what they would work on if they were to change the piece that they had created. The analysis of the results indicated that the students were able to describe what they used to remember their creative products, offered critiques of their pieces that were appropriate, and had definite ideas about what they would do differently. Suggestions for helping students to realize the potential in creative activities are included.

Reynolds, Alison Alison.Reynolds@temple.edu Hoy, Matthew Temple University Transforming a Public School Music Landscape: Cultivating a Suzuki Talent Education Program The purpose of this research was to examine lived stories of participants involved in establishing a Suzuki strings program within public school settings. The questions included (1) How do participants’ stories describe their desired success for the program? (2) Do their visions for achieving success align? (3) How do narratives written by Shinichi Suzuki and Suzuki practitioners intertwine with participants’ lived stories? Participants in this study included the Suzuki violin teacher, his two elementary school principals, the president of the local strings association, the chamber of commerce president, a member of the school board, 5 parents, and 3 students. We considered the participants’ narratives relative to our research questions, and in the context of a three-dimensional narrative inquiry space: how (1) the temporal—past, present, and future conditions within this study—over the course of one school year were similar to temporal narratives of conditions of the Suzuki Talent Education movement for Suzuki and teachers in the United States; (2) desired personal and social transformations occurred within this highly contextualized setting; and (3) the town’s location affects the storied lives of participants. Metaphorically, we viewed the participants as gardeners who seek to transform their barren landscape by growing a successful Suzuki Talent Education program. The gardeners have view their gardens differently, and understandings about what achieving a successful program might mean. With opportunities to discuss their garden’s design together, they might discover that their diverse outlooks add richness to their soil and, in turn, cultivate individuals within the garden.

Robinson, Charles Parisi, Joseph parisijo@umkc.edu University of Missouri–Kansas City High School Singers’ Technical, Emotional and Social Responses to an All-State Chorus Experience The purpose of this study was to examine choral singers’ expectations and reflections across time during a three-day all-state choral experience. High school students (N= 160) were members of the 2004 all-state chorus sponsored by the Florida Vocal Association. The ensemble rehearsed seven pieces of music over a three-day period before presenting a public concert as the culmination of the experience. Participants maintained journals throughout the three-day experience with entries prior to the first rehearsal, prior to the concert, and following each of six rehearsal sessions. The journal booklet collected responses regarding: (a) demographic information; (b) preference for pieces; (c) numerical ratings for quality of rehearsal experience; and (d) free-response written comments about the experience. Results indicated significant pre-post increases for all pieces (p<.05). No significant correlations were found between years in school chorus or years in all-state chorus and assigned “expectation” ratings or final ratings for the experience. A significant correlation (p<.0001) was found between assigned “expectation” and final ratings. No significant differences were found across assigned ratings for each rehearsal session as a function of voice part, however, ratings were significantly different (p<.0001) among the various sessions. Subjects’ written journal comments (N=2,994) were categorized within each of the rehearsal sessions as technical, emotional and social. Graphic representation of comments across time showed an inverted “U” shape for frequency of technical comments, a “U” shape for emotional comments, and a generally consistent frequency of social comments. Further qualitative research is suggested that might explore journal comments more thoroughly.

Rose, Paige lrose2@lsu.edu Louisiana State University The Freedom Singers of the Civil Rights Movement: Music Functioning for Freedom As a human invariant, music is employed in a variety of ways across cultures. Throughout the turbulent decade of the 1960s, music of the Freedom Singers was representative of the Civil Rights Movement and political and humanistic agendas. The repertoire of this singing group could be arguably classified as fulfilling all ten functions of music that appear in Alan Merriam’s The Anthropology of Music. Most vital to the cause of the Civil Rights Movement, however, was their music’s contributions to functions of communication, symbolic representation, and integration of society. Although sometimes referred to as a movement of song, the Civil Rights era yielded few attempts by performers to directly educate the public through communication in music. While touring and spreading the message of freedom, the group registered black Americans to vote, and raised money for the endeavors of the Student Non- Violent Coordinating Committee. While braving brutality, the Freedom Singers infiltrated society with music’s symbolic representation, including cultural symbolism, and metaphoric imagery. They also served to help in the integration of society by standing alongside Civil Rights leaders at rallies, sit-ins, and events such as the March on Washington. Despite its utilitarian scope, the music of the Freedom Singers offers numerous examples for serious musical study. The songs elicit call-and-response participation, represent musical improvisation, and provide examples of basic chord structure, blues influence, and American style. The Freedom Singers’ music also provides the opportunity to educate students on history, tolerance, and the most substantive and far- reaching goals of every educational institution.

Scott, Suzanne M. prmello97@earthlink.net Florida State University Band Students’ Perceptions of the Race and Gender of Professional Wind Players The purpose of this study was to examine band student perceptions of the race and gender of professional wind players. Specifically, three questions were examined: (1) Do sex-stereotypes of music instruments transfer to student perceptions of the gender of a professional player; (2) Do band students associate a specific race with professional instrumental players; and (3) Will the data vary according to the age of the students and the amount of experience the students have playing a band instrument? A survey was developed to gather information about gender and racial associations for professional flute, clarinet, saxophone, trumpet, French horn, and tuba players. The respondents (N=202) included middle school, high school, and university level band students from a medium-sized city in Florida. Results revealed that students do assign gender and racial stereotypes to professional wind players. Gender associations coincide with previously researched gender associations for musical instruments. However, the present study found these gender and racial associations also changed toward male Caucasian as the grade level increased.

Simmons, Amy L. Amy.Simmons@utsa.edu University of Texas at San Antonio Duke, Robert A. University of Texas at Austin. Sleep Enhances Performance of Complex Motor Skills Complex motor skill performance is improved through practice. Current research in neuroscience and psychology has shown sleep-dependent improvements in the speed and accuracy of simple motor skill performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sleep-dependent improvements are observable in complex motor skills performed by experienced learners. Participants were trained to play a simple melody on the piano at different times of day. Retests were given following 12- and 24-hour intervals that did or did not include sleep. Results show significant sleep-dependent enhancements in performance accuracy for retests that followed intervals that included sleep. Unlike the findings of research with more limited tasks, however, sleep-dependent enhancements in performance speed were not consistently evident. We observed time-dependent enhancements in the temporal evenness of performance for retests given 24 hours after training.

Skadsem, Julie jskadsem@bama.ua.edu University of Alabama The Effect of Dalcroze Instruction on Conductors’ Ability to Maintain a Steady Tempo The purpose of this study was to determine whether instruction in Dalcroze eurhythmics would improve a conductor’s ability to maintain a tempo while conducting or clapping. Participants (N=40) consisted of music majors enrolled in a basic conducting class at a university. Participants were divided into a control group (n=20) and an experimental group (n=20) and given a pretest to assess their ability to maintain a steady tempo while conducting and while clapping. A tempo of 90 beats per minute was established using a metronome and participants were asked to continue the tempo by conducting or clapping for 30 seconds. The experimental group then received eighteen 10-minute lessons in Dalcroze eurhythmics throughout one academic semester. Participants were then given a posttest in like manner of the pretest. Scores of each group on both tests were compared to yield no significant differences between groups on conducting or clapping tasks. There was, however, a significant difference between pretest and posttest conducting scores with both groups combined. It was also found that when given a choice of how many preparation beats to use, most participants chose a number divisible by four indicating a propensity toward simple quadruple meter.

Standley, Jayne M. Jayne.standley@cmr.fsu.edu Florida State University Cassidy, Jane Louisiana State University Grant, Roy Cevasco, Andrea University of Georgia Szuch, Catherine University of North Carolina Medical Center Nguyen, Judy Walworth, Darcy Procelli, Danielle Jarred, Jennifer Adams, Kristen Florida State University The Effect of Music Reinforcement for Non-Nutritive Sucking via the PAL (Pacifier-Activated Lullabies Apparatus) on Achievement of Oral Feeding by Premature Infants in the NICU In this randomized controlled study, the PAL (Standley, 2000) was used with 68 gavage fed premature infants. Dependent variables were: a) days of gavage feeding; b) days of PO feeding; c) discharge weight; and d) overall weight gain. Independent variables included: contingent music reinforcement for NNS for 1, 3 or 0 trials; PAL intervention at 32 vs 34 vs 36 weeks aga and gender. Two-Way Analyses of Variance were conducted for comparison by age at study and number of PAL trials. Analysis of gavage feeding days showed significance for age at study (F=14.137, df=2, p=.00) and age at study by trials (F=2.758, df=4, p=.036). Specifically, all 36 wk aga infants took significantly longer to PO feed and 3 PAL trials shortened the interval, but not significantly so. At 34 weeks, PAL trials significantly shortened gavage length and 3 trials were significantly better than 1 trial. PAL trials significantly increased gavage length at 32 weeks. Analysis of PO days to discharge and discharge weight showed no statistical differences by PAL trials or age at study. Generally, the PAL babies went home sooner after beginning to PO feed, but this trend was not statistically significant Analysis of total weight gain from birth to discharge was significant for age at study (F=4.629, df=2, p=.014) and age at study by PAL trials (F=2.739, df=4, p=.037). Specifically, the 36 week aga infants gained significantly more weight than the other groups, but this was expected since they were born at lower birth weights and stayed in the hospital longer.

Striff, Kate F. k-striff@northwestern.edu Northwestern University Characteristics of Urban and Suburban Teachers of Secondary Instrumental Music This study examined and compared the characteristics of urban and suburban secondary instrumental music teachers in the Chicago area. Subjects (N=20) were sent an anonymous questionnaire by mail and given the option of completing it manually or in an online format. Results of demographic analysis showed that suburban teachers had higher levels of educational attainment, urban teachers were more diverse than suburban teachers, suburban teachers taught a greater variety of courses, suburban teachers were slightly older, with more corresponding teaching experience, and urban teachers had a greater percentage of female teachers than their suburban counterparts. All teachers surveyed had full Illinois certification to teach music, had at least a baccalaureate degree, were predominantly white, and predominantly male. A One-Way ANOVA revealed the following significant differences between the two populations: urban teachers scored significantly lower on Perie & Baker’s (1997) job satisfaction index, had significantly lower levels of educational attainment, were less satisfied with their urban teaching contexts, felt the number of students they taught were less manageable, felt their careers were less personally rewarding, felt they had less parental support, felt they had gained less from professional development, and felt that they spent more time on discipline. A Pearson Chi-Square revealed a relationship between the context in which the subject teaches and the context of the high school he or she attended (8.170 (3), p=.043). Because of the small sample size involved, cautious interpretation of results is encouraged.

Thuerauf, Jeffrey P. jeff.thuerauf@cox.net M. C. Cash Elementary School, Mesa, Arizona Arizona State University A Survey of American Symphony Orchestra Programming for the 2003-04 Season Studies conducted in the twentieth century showed that large orchestras tended to program conservatively, with relatively few composers dominating the majority of concert programming. In this study I examined music programming for the 2003-04 season through a random sample of five orchestras from each of eight categories (N=40) defined by the American Symphony Orchestra League (ASOL). Analysis revealed that American symphonic programming favors the Romantic style period, and that the number of concerts for the 2003-04 season differed significantly across orchestra categories (p<.05), though concert lengths were statistically similar. A Friedman ANOVA used to test the rank order of program time devoted to music of each of the four most recent style periods (Modern, Romantic, Classical, and Baroque) across the eight orchestra categories revealed a significantly similar ranking (p<.0001). A one-way ANOVA showed that the programmed Modern music works tended to be shorter than works from other style periods (p<.0001). This study took into account eight orchestra categories, something not done in earlier studies. Style period analysis is recommended for the entire history of American symphonic programming.

VanWeelden, Kimberly kvanwee@garnet.acns.fsu.edu Florida State University Whipple, Jennifer Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability for the Florida Legislature Preservice Music Teachers’ Predictions, Perceptions, and Assessment of Students with Special Needs: The Need for Training in Student Assessment The purpose of the current study was to examine preservice teachers’ predictions and perceptions of students with special needs’ level of mastery of specific music education concepts and actual grades achieved by these students using alternative assessments and testing accommodations within two subpopulations: students with emotional and/or behavior disorders (EDBD) and students with acute cognitive delays (ACD). The preservice teachers predicted students within the EDBD class would achieve a significantly higher level of mastery of the music concepts than students within the ACD classroom. After the field experience, however, the preservice teachers perceptions of all students’ level of mastery increased from predictions scores overall. Additionally, preservice teachers were able to execute testing accommodations and implement successful alternative assessments which gave empirical data on the students’ level of mastery of the music education concepts within the curriculum. Finally, there was no correlation between how the preservice teachers thought students would perform, how they thought the students did performed, and how the students actually performed based on assessment data.

Wachtel, Joe wachtel@egyptian.net Steeleville, Illinois Schools Southern Illinois University at Carbondale The Effect of Reading Skills on Learning Music Notation The purpose of this study was to determine if children who have difficulty reading also have trouble learning music notation. The study included 18 fourth graders in a Southern Illinois public elementary school. The reading abilities of the students were divided into two categories: reading below grade level and reading at or above grade level. Each student’s level was determined by their Illinois Standard Achievement Test (ISAT) scores, Iowa Basic Skills Test scores, and Accelerated Reader scores. The students were taught the pitches of the treble clef for one month during their music class. The students were given a pitch recognition test at the end of three months. Eleven of seventeen (65 %) students met or exceeded ISAT standards. One student (Q) had no ISAT score. Ten of eighteen (56%) students scored in the 50th percentile or above nationally on the ITBS. Eleven of eighteen (65%) students read at or above grade level according to their Accelerated Reader scores. Fifteen of eighteen (83%) passed the music notation test. All students that read at or above grade level passed the test. One of five students that read below grade level passed the music notation test. These findings show a positive correlation between reading level and reading music notation. Because of the time frame and the small number of subjects, the author feels that there is a need for further research in order to reproduce these findings with a larger sample of students.

Wapnick, Joel jwapnick@music.mcgill.ca Ryan, Charlene Campbell, Louise Deek, Patricia Mutter, Morgan Lemire, Renata McGill University Effects of Familiarity and Expectation on Expert Judge Ratings of Extended and Intact High-Level Piano Performances The purpose of this study was to determine how judgments of piano half-recitals recorded at an international piano competition would be affected by judges’ prior experience with the music being performed, and by whether judges would be affected by expectations of the performances being played by one performer versus three different performers. Judges were 49 university piano teachers. Results indicated that performances were rated more highly if the judge had played the work than if s/he had not played it; note accuracy was rated higher than all other test items; gender was not related to leniency of ratings; and there was no significant expectation effect regarding informing participants that performances were performed by one pianist or by three pianists.

Wayman, Virginia E. vwayman@gmail.com University of Texas Pan-American Beginning Music Education Students’ and Student Teachers’ Opinions of Skills and Behaviors Important to Successful Music Teaching The purpose of this study was to compare the beliefs about effective music teaching of beginning music education students with those of student teachers. The sample consisted of a group of undergraduate music majors in their first music education course (n = 55) and a group of music student teachers (n = 25). Subjects were given a 40-item questionnaire and asked to rate the importance of each item using a 4-point Likert-type scale. The mean score for each group on each item was calculated and used to rank the items. Of the 12 top-ranked items of each group, 13 attributes were common to both groups. Beginning music education students and student teachers rated 5 of the 40 items the same or within one ranking of each other. Five items were rated differently by 10 or more rankings. The items were then placed into one of three general categories (musical, personal or teaching behaviors). A two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to determine that no significant difference existed between the two groups in the ranking of the three skill categories. Both groups found personal skills to be most important to initial success in teaching; teaching skills were ranked second, and musical skills third.

Williams, David A. dwilliams@arts.usf.edu University of South Florida Enhancing Pre-Service Music Teachers’ Learning in Digital Arts Education Through Innovative Approaches to K-12 Classrooms This descriptive research project was used to create a unique educational model whereby pre-service teachers worked directly with k-12 music students using digital multimedia technologies. The project had three main goals. First, was to serve as an innovative example of using technologies and multimedia to enhance k-12 student’s understanding of music and the arts, by delivering exemplar models into k-12 schools. Second, was to engage pre-service teachers in new types of learning experiences using multimedia technologies that will provide authentic examples of innovative teaching/learning interactions in music and the arts. Third, was to provide an opportunity for music pre-service teachers to design a media arts unit of instruction, meeting NETS for Teachers, that can be used later during their required field experiences. For the project, seven digital media workstations were transported to three area middle schools using a university owned mini-bus. Each workstation consisted of a G5 iMac computer, an M-Audio Oxygen keyboard, a Canon ZR-80 digital video camera and a firewire cable to connect the camera to the computer. Three software packages that came preloaded on the G5’s were used; GarageBand, iTunes, and iMovie. Using the work stations groups of middle school subjects and University pre-service teachers worked together to create music videos that demonstrated understanding of artistic form.

Wilson, Cathi C. wilsonce@missouri.edu University of Missouri–Columbia Secondary General Music: A Survey of Programs in American High Schools The purpose of this survey was to obtain information about two fundamental issues surrounding general music programs in high schools: 1) to which students course offerings are being targeted—those enrolled in traditional performing ensembles vs. those who are not; and 2) the content of those courses being offered, whether knowledge or skills-based. As an extension of this project, specific information was gathered about the types and content of programs that others are offering that will be compiled in a separate publication. An electronic survey was developed and e-mailed to approximately 21,000 high school music educators in MENC’s database. Respondents were asked to provide information about up to five general music courses offered, the approximate number of students enrolled in each course, and of this total, how many of the students were concurrently enrolled in any of the performing groups that they had listed, and who taught the course. This information was based on the 2004-05 school year. Space was provided to briefly explain the course subject matter. The combined total reported enrollment for the 946 schools included in the survey was 1,052,870. Of this total, 361 schools (38%) were described as rural, 436 (46%) as suburban, and 149 (16%) as urban. For the school year 2004-05, a total of 1,380 separate general music courses classified into 23 categories were offered to 40,727 enrolled students. Of those, 11,729 (29%) were listed as being concurrently enrolled in performing ensembles, which means that 28,998 (71%) of those enrolled in these general music courses were nonperforming students. There is much information contained in the data and discussed in this report that indicates the direction that high school general music is taking, some of the challenges secondary music educators are facing, implications for teaching, and for future research.

Woody, Robert H. rwoody2@unl.edu University of Nebraska–Lincoln Exploring Participatory Musicianship among Young Adults Music education has long emphasized the goal of lifelong musical involvement, but has often limited it to training “informed consumers” of music. Perhaps greater attention should be devoted to equipping students with the skills that facilitate more participatory involvement with music. This study explored the ways that young adults interact with music in their lives. Twenty-two college freshman participated in a project that required them to give a musical “performance” of their choice (as formal or informal as they liked) after having two to three months to prepare. During this process, participants documented many aspects of their preparations. Quantitative and qualitative analyses yielded the following results. Participants expressed most comfort with passive forms of musical involvement (e.g., listening), but almost all of them reported knowing how to play a musical instrument and liking to sing. They perceived their school music experiences as emphasizing ensemble performance and sight-reading, with not much opportunity to develop skill in composing, improvising, and playing by ear. A number of participants showed particular interest in writing original songs to express themselves. In completing the study’s performance project, most participants chose to perform in informal settings in which the presence of friends and family was important. Motivation to practice was often related to whether they chose a style of music they were accustomed to (e.g., classical) or a style they personally preferred (e.g., popular).