2008 Research Poster Session Abstracts

2008 MENC National Conference Research Poster Session Abstracts

 

Research Poster Session IResearch Poster Session IIResearch Poster Session III
Part 1   •   Part 2Part 1   •   Part 2Part 1   •   Part 2

8:00 AM Research Poster Session I Click on the paper title to see the abstract. Highlight a specific abstract to select it, and then copy and paste it into a document. After selecting all abstracts you are interested in, you may print that document. This will allow you to only print the abstracts you are interested in. Bergee, Martin J.; University of Kansas. mbergee@ku.edu “Music Achievement Predicts Reading and Mathematics Achievement.” Bugos, Jennifer and Mostafa, Wendy ; East Carolina University. bugosj@ecu.edu “The Effects of Musical Training on Information Processing Speed.” Ciorba, Charles R.; Millikin University. crciorba@hotmail.com “Professional Self-Perceptions of Future Music Educators: An Exploratory Study.” Conway, Colleen and Eros, John; University of Michigan. conwaycm@umich.edu Stanley, Ann Marie; Eastman School of Music. “Summers-Only Versus the Academic Year Master of Music Degree: Perceptions of Program Graduates.” Conway, Colleen; University of Michigan. conwaycm@umich.edu Hodgman, Thomas; Adrian College. “Perceptions of College and Community Choir Members Regarding the Experience of a Collaborative Intergenerational Performance Project.” Cooper, Shelly C. and Bayless, Robert; University of Arizona. sccooper@email.arizona.edu “An Examination of the Music Teachers National Association Papers and Proceedings:1906-1930: A Twenty-five Year Perspective.” Cooper, Shelly C.; University of Arizona. sccooper@email.arizona.edu Durocher, Judith; Scottsdale Community College. “All-State High School Honor Choir Auditions: Examining Students’ Musical Backgrounds and Perceptions of the Sight-Singing Component.” Darrow, Alice-Ann; Florida State University. aadarrow@fsu.edu Novak, Julie; Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind. Swedberg, Olivia; Tallahassee Memorial Hospital. Horton, Monica and Rice, Brenda; Leon County Florida Public Schools. “The Effect of Participation in a Music Mentorship Program on the Self-Esteem and Attitudes of At-Risk Students.” Dobbs, Teryl L.; University of Wisconsin-Madison. tdobbs@wisc.edu “Talking Music: Applying Austin’s (1962) Speech Act Theory to Instrumental Music Classroom Discourse.” Droe, Kevin L.; University of Northern Iowa. droe@uni.edu “The Effect of the Music Score on Educators’ Written Comments.” Fredrickson, William E.; Florida State University. wfredrickson@fsu.edu “Undergraduate and Graduate Music Majors’ Attitudes Toward Private Lesson Teaching After Graduation: A Replication and Extension.” Fuller, Lynnda, N.; Scappoose School District 1J. lynndafuller@gmail.com “The Early Twentieth Century Grade Teacher as Music Educator.” Hackworth, Rhonda S.; Rutgers University. “Vocal Hygiene Perceptions: A Comparison of Experienced and Pre-Service Music Teachers.” Hamann, Keitha, L.; University of Minnesota. haman011@umn.edu “Lincoln Junior High School Girls Band (Minneapolis): 1923-1940.” Hamilton, Hilree, J.; University of Wisconsin-River Falls. hilree.hamilton@uwrf.edu “Teaching and Learning in Preschool Music: A Methods Class Pre-Service Field Experience.” Harding, Robert A.; University of Northern Colorado. al.harding@unco.edu Owens, Douglas, T.; University of Southern Maine. “Music Educators Hearing Threshold Testing Project.” Hartley, Linda A.; University of Dayton. LHartley@udayton.edu Porter, Ann M.; University of Cincinnati. “The Relationship of String Student Enrollment and Retention to Beginning Instructional Grade.” Hash, Phillip M.; Calvin College. pmh3@calvin.edu “Music at the Illinois Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children: 1865-1920.” Jellison, Judith A. and Duke, Robert, A.; University of Texas at Austin. jjellison@mail.utexas.edu “Teachers’ Self-Perceptions of Competence and Their Willingness to Teach Children with Disabilities.” Juchniewicz, Jay; Florida State University. jayjuchniewicz@hotmail.com “The Perception and Restoration of Tonality in Power Chords.” Kantorski, Vincent J.; Bowling Green State University. vkantor@bgnet.bgsu.edu “A Content Analysis of Survey Dissertations in Music Education, 2002 – 2006.” Kelly, Steven N.; Florida State University. skelly@admin.fsu.edu “Public School Supervising Teachers’ Perceptions of Skills and Behaviors Necessary in the Development of Music Student Teachers.” Killian, Janice N., Dye, Keith G., and Buckner, Jeremy J.; Texas Tech University. janice.killian@ttu.edu “The Effect of Self-Directed Peer Teaching on Undergraduate Acquisition of Specified Music Teaching Skills.” Killian, Janice N., and Buckner, Jeremy, J.; Texas Tech University. janice.killian@ttu.edu “Comparison of Starting Pitch Preferences among 4th Graders, Undergraduate Music Majors and Elementary Education Majors.” Kinney, Daryl W.; Ohio State University. kinney.61@osu.edu “The Effect of Formal Training in Music and Excerpt Familiarity on the Internal Consistency of Performance Evaluation.” Kinney, Daryl W.; Ohio State University. kinney.61@osu.edu “The Effect of School Performing Ensemble Participation and Select Demographic Variables on the Achievement Test Scores of Urban Middle School Students.” Kovacs, Ingrid M.; Canarelli Middle School. imingch@yahoo.com “The Influence of Gestalt in Paul Rolland’s Theory of Pedagogy.” Krueger, Patti J.; University of Puget Sound. krueger@ups.ed “Music and Related Arts in Elementary Classroom Student Teacher Practice.” Latimer, Marvin E.; University of Alabama. mlatimer@music.ua.edu “Harold A. Decker (1914 – 2003) at the Municipal University of Wichita: A Transition to National Prominence.” Lorenzino, Lisa; McGill University, Canada. lisa.lorenzino@mcgill.ca “Strengths of Secondary Music Education in Cuba: Insights for Music Educators.” Matthews, Wendy K.; Northern Virginia Community College. wmatthew@gmu.edu Kitsantas, Anastasia; George Mason University. “Effects of the Conductor’s Goal Orientation and Use of Shared Performance Cues on Instrumentalists’ Self-Regulation, Motivation, and Performance in Large Musical Ensembles.”


Bergee, Martin J.; University of Kansas. mbergee@ku.edu “Music Achievement Predicts Reading and Mathematics Achievement.” With this study, I examined the extent to which individual children’s music achievement was related to their reading and mathematics achievement. I controlled for a number of impinging variables: grade level, gender, educational attainment of parents or guardians, family income (via free/reduced lunch status), ethnicity, and location of the school. A total of 1,068 4th- through 8th-grade students from seven school districts participated in the study. These school districts represented a mix of urban, “near-urban”, suburban, small city, and rural areas. Participants sat for a representative portion of the first two of the Music Achievement Tests (MAT-1 and MAT-2). Each participant’s standardized test scores in reading and math also were collected. Intact classes were tested for music achievement, although individuals were the unit of analysis. To account for the random, correlated, and hierarchical effects of students within classrooms within schools, I used hierarchical linear mixed modeling to analyze the data. I developed separate models for reading and math achievement. Results indicated that, with the above-named variables accounted for, both MAT-1 and MAT-2 (controlling for one another as well) strongly predicted (ps < .0001) reading and math achievement. Bugos, Jennifer and Mostafa, Wendy ; East Carolina University. bugosj@ecu.edu “The Effects of Musical Training on Information Processing Speed.” Musical training requires temporally complex cognitive and motor skills. Research suggests that music training has the capacity to transfer to other areas of cognition. The purpose of this research was to further examine transferability of component processes related to music instruction. One such component process inherent to cognitive development is information processing speed. First, we examined music’s role on information processing speed in (N=30) musicians and non-musicians. Results indicate enhanced performance by musicians compared to non-musicians on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). According to the Processing Speed Theory, aging has traditionally been associated with deficits in cognitive performance due to slower processing speed. We examined the effects of six months of Individual Piano Instruction (IPI) on processing speed in (N=31) musically naïve older adults compared to controls. Data confirm a similar pattern of results suggesting that musical training may increase information processing speed. Ciorba, Charles R.; Millikin University. crciorba@hotmail.com “Professional Self-Perceptions of Future Music Educators: An Exploratory Study.” The purpose of this study was to examine the professional self-perceptions of a group of university students majoring in music education. A Likert-type survey consisting of 20 response items was designed to determine whether a significant difference existed between: (a) how participants personally valued music education and (b) how participants perceived the rest of the educational community (administrators, teachers of other subject areas, etc.) valued music education. Participants (N = 33) were drawn from a group of music education majors at a private southeastern university. Results of a paired samples t test indicated that participants’ personal self-perceptions towards music education (M = 3.70, SD = 0.26) were significantly higher than how they perceived the rest of the educational community valued music education (M = 2.50, SD = 0.54), t(9) = 6.55, p < .01. An independent samples t test was conducted to determine whether a significant difference existed between the mean scores of male and female participants. Results indicated that the test was not significant. Overall, participants personally regarded music as a highly respected subject that enriches the lives of all students. Furthermore, they believed every student should be given an opportunity to study music, especially at the elementary level. Participants perceived that the rest of the educational community regarded math and reading as more important than music and that the issues of scheduling and standardized testing often take precedence over music classes. Conway, Colleen and Eros, John; University of Michigan. conwaycm@umich.edu Stanley, Ann Marie; Eastman School of Music. “Summers-Only Versus the Academic Year Master of Music Degree: Perceptions of Program Graduates.” The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of “summers-only” Master of Music (SO) graduates (n=5) to academic year (AY) graduates (n=4) regarding the MM degree. Research questions included: (a) How do program graduates describe their experiences in the Master of Music Program? (b) What are the similarities and differences in the perceptions of the two groups (SO and AY) and (c) What suggestions do participants have regarding the advantages and disadvantages of various MM program designs? This study utilized a qualitative formative program evaluation model and data included: (a) an initial on-line survey; (b) participant journals; and (c) individual interviews. Findings are organized within the following categories: (a) motivations for and reflections on the degree (b) issues of time; and (c) development of community. Differences between perceptions of the two groups and suggestions for graduate education are addressed in the discussion. Conway, Colleen; University of Michigan. conwaycm@umich.edu Hodgman, Thomas; Adrian College. “Perceptions of College and Community Choir Members Regarding the Experience of a Collaborative Intergenerational Performance Project.” The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of college and community choir members regarding the experience of a collaborative intergenerational performance project (CIPP). Data included: an initial focus group interview with college choir participants (n=8): an initial focus group interview with community choir participants (n=8); collaborative intergenerational performance project journals from both college choir and community choir participants (n=16); post project individual interviews with each participant (n=16); and the teacher-researcher’s personal log of collaborative intergenerational performance project interactions. Themes that emerged in the analysis included: (a) heightened performance experience; (b) a better understanding and greater respect for others; (c) no signs of an age barrier; (d) importance of preparation for collaboration; and (e) issues regarding placement of singers in the ensemble. Cooper, Shelly C. and Bayless, Robert; University of Arizona. sccooper@email.arizona.edu “An Examination of the Music Teachers National Association Papers and Proceedings:1906-1930: A Twenty-five Year Perspective.” This research presents a general overview of the Music Teachers National Association during its early years and examines the MTNA yearbooks, specifically the first twenty-five year span (1906-30), following the return to the printing of the papers and proceedings in book form, the organizations renewed commitment to improving the publication’s quality, and their emphasis on music education. The authors investigated discussion topics, papers, and reports as printed in the organization’s Papers and Proceedings to unearth topics, trends, notable individuals, and geographic representations. Upon examination, the authors organized the various topics into twelve over-arching categories and among noteworthy findings was the first-place ranking of Music History for total articles and total pages allotted and a prominence of male authors permeating these years of the organization. The MTNA Papers and Proceedings provide invaluable informational sources and through analysis, researchers may determine past interests in music education, public school education, and community musi
c. Cooper, Shelly C.; University of Arizona. sccooper@email.arizona.edu Durocher, Judith; Scottsdale Community College. “All-State High School Honor Choir Auditions: Examining Students’ Musical Backgrounds and Perceptions of the Sight-Singing Component.” Two research questions guided this study: 1) What are the musical backgrounds of All-State Honor Choir members? and 2) What are the choir members’ perceptions of the sight-singing component of the audition? A survey, distributed to 199 choir members, included 15 multiple-choice questions and seven open-ended questions. 172 surveys were returned, an 86% response rate. Major findings from this study included that instrumental experiences, especially involving piano, appear to effect sight-reading achievement, and a majority of participants had received private instruction. A majority of students chose solfege as their preferred sight-reading method and identified solfege as the method used in their school. This data suggests block and contrapuntal portions of sight-reading auditions may be more accessible to students who consistently sing four-part hymns within their religious services, bringing to question whether subtle biases in the design of sight-reading components providing unfair advantages to students who participate in hymn singing. Darrow, Alice-Ann; Florida State University. aadarrow@fsu.edu Novak, Julie; Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind. Swedberg, Olivia; Tallahassee Memorial Hospital. Horton, Monica and Rice, Brenda; Leon County Florida Public Schools. “The Effect of Participation in a Music Mentorship Program on the Self-Esteem and Attitudes of At-Risk Students.” The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of participation in a music mentorship program on the self-esteem and attitudes of at-risk students. Participants (N = 24) were adolescent girls enrolled in a special program for secondary students who are at risk for academic failure and who are experiencing conflict in school and at home. Participants were assigned to a music mentorship group, music participation only group (no mentorship component), or control group (no participation in music). Interventions were at-risk students’ participation in either a 16-week music mentorship program, or a 16-week music only program. Mentees for the mentorship program were secondary students enrolled a self-contained public school for students with developmental disabilities. Experimental group participants were involved in a special chorus, step and movement group, and instrumental ensemble. Results from dependent measures indicated that participants’ self-esteem scores in the music and music mentorship groups improved similarly from pre- to posttest, and improved more so than the control group, though not significantly. Participants’ journals revealed positive and affirming statements about what the mentors had learned about people with disabilities, helping others, and teaching music. These data indicate that music participation in any form may assist in improving students’ self-esteem, although specific interventions may need to be longer in duration, targeted toward a specific self-esteem domain, and/or more intense in order to show significant improvement in standardized measures of self-esteem. Additional pre-post data revealed that at the conclusion of the music mentorship intervention, at-risk students were more interested in teaching as a possible career, and were more comfortable with persons who have disabilities than they were before the intervention. Dobbs, Teryl L.; University of Wisconsin-Madison. tdobbs@wisc.edu “Talking Music: Applying Austin’s (1962) Speech Act Theory 
to Instrumental Music Classroom Discourse.” This study investigated the naturally occurring talk that emerged within an instrumental music classroom. Using Austin’s (1962) philosophy of speech act theory to create a discourse analysis of classroom, the purpose of this study was to investigate classroom talk as verbal data in determining how the verbal discourse shaped the teaching and learning of music within that classroom. The study sought to determine (a) the types of emergent discourse patterns; (b) the types of physical gestures that conveyed or embodied meaning; and (c) the convergence of these discourse patterns and meaningful physical gestures in shaping music teaching and learning. Results indicate that particular discursive structures within the classroom discourse, such as musical uptake, certain physical gestures including conducting and the performing of music itself, and the combination of discursive structures with physical gestures impact the classroom musical experience. Droe, Kevin L.; University of Northern Iowa. droe@uni.edu “The Effect of the Music Score on Educators’ Written Comments.” The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of looking at a music score while listening to a musical performance on the amount and type of comments written by educators. Forty-one music teachers with middle school and high school teaching experience participated in the study. The experimental group (n = 16) listened to an excerpt of a middle school band performance while looking at a score to the music. The control group (n = 25) listened to the same middle school band performance without looking at the score. Participants were instructed to write down as many comments about the performance as possible. For each participant, the number of comments was recorded and comments were categorized using two criteria: approvals/disapprovals and music elements. The ten categories for elements of music were articulation, balance, dynamics, ensemble cohesiveness, intonation, phrasing, rhythm, technique, tempo and tone. Results indicated that the group using the score responded with more disapproval of performance comments than the group without a score and that the group not using the score responded with more approval of performance comments than the group with a score. The score group provided significantly more comments about articulation, rhythm and dynamics than the no-score group while the no-score group provided significantly more comments about intonation and tone. There was no significant difference in the number of total comments between the two groups. Implications for music education are discussed. Fredrickson, William E.; Florida State University. wfredrickson@fsu.edu “Undergraduate and Graduate Music Majors’ Attitudes Toward Private Lesson Teaching After Graduation: A Replication and Extension.” The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of students (N = 486) from two large state-university music departments and extend an earlier study by administering the survey to students across degree programs, bachelors through doctorate. Results showed that undergraduate and graduate students only differed significantly on nine out of twenty-eight statements and in most cases these differences were manifested by graduate students agreeing more strongly with statements where everyone agreed, or disagreeing more strongly where everyone disagreed. Educators and performers were most alike on statements about wanting to teach, liking the idea of watching students learn, and looking forward to being better teachers themselves. They differed in that educators were more willing to take on students who are less skilled or able, more inclined to teach improvisation while more focused on teaching music reading from the beginning, and more likely to work on getting the notes right first before dealing with expressive elements. Educators focused less on teaching for money, connecting their teaching with improving their own playing, and saw themselves as less likely to give up teaching to do other things. The data suggest that more systematic study of the private music lesson setting is warranted and college music majors see a need for training to teach. Fuller, Lynnda, N.; Scappoose School Distri
ct 1J. lynndafuller@gmail.com “The Early Twentieth Century Grade Teacher as Music Educator.” A 1915 hand written “Music Notebook” compiled by eighth grade classroom teacher Ruth Cleveland Nunn for her eighth grade students in Dallas, Oregon was the genesis for this research. Primary sources including other artifacts preserved by the Nunn family, microfilm copies of Dallas newspapers from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, and historical documents preserved in the Polk County Historical Museum, Oregon Historical Society, and Western Oregon University archives were used to examine the music component of teacher training in the early 1900s in Oregon. Hand written notes from Dallas music supervisor, Gertrude Irwin, found in the “Music Notebook” allowed a brief glance at ways in which the music supervisor and grade teacher interacted. These along with the well preserved “Music Outline” for grades VI, VII, and VIII helped complete the picture of music education presented by the grade teacher in a small rural Oregon town in 1915. While generalized histories of music education have great value in understanding trends, the historical artifacts provided a unique opportunity to see how these trends were embodied in an actual teaching situation. Hackworth, Rhonda S.; Rutgers University. “Vocal Hygiene Perceptions: A Comparison of Experienced and Pre-Service Music Teachers.” Teachers with eleven or more years experience (n=238), teachers with 1-10 years experience (n=190), and pre-service teachers (n=231) provided the following survey information: voice use in teaching, perceived risk of voice disorders in teaching, ratings of vocal health behaviors, personal voice problems, and vocal stress ratings of teaching activities. Majorities in all groups believe (1) teaching equals high voice disorder risk, (2) vocal problems affect the teaching career, and (3) career change to preserve voices would be unlikely. Overall, drinking water was rated the healthiest behavior and smoking the unhealthiest. Significant differences were found in ratings of four behaviors: speaking in noisy environments, drinking water, clearing the throat, and consuming alcohol. Speaking over noisy classroom conditions was the teaching activity rated highest overall for vocal stress, demonstration singing was the lowest. Significant differences were found in ratings of four teaching activities: opening remarks, vocal instruction while students sing, speaking over noisy classroom conditions, and lunchroom duty. An additional comparison of vocalists and instrumentalists revealed significant differences in two behaviors (speaking in noisy environments & clearing the throat) and five teaching activities (opening remarks, verbal instruction while students sing, lunchroom duty, demonstration singing alone, & demonstration singing while students sing). Hamann, Keitha, L.; University of Minnesota. haman011@umn.edu “Lincoln Junior High School Girls Band (Minneapolis): 1923-1940.” In junior high schools of the early 20th century, music educators and supervisors worked together to develop an appropriate musical education for young adolescent learners. Implementation of music curricula in these early junior high schools lends historical insight into middle level music education in the United States. I outline the music program at Lincoln Junior High School in Minneapolis from 1923 to 1940, which was in many ways exemplary of the kinds of experiences found in junior high schools of the time: required music class, chorus, orchestra, and glee clubs. What made Lincoln JH unique was the Girls’ Band that existed from the fall of 1924 through the spring of 1940 and was thought to be the only girls’ band in a junior high school in the US. The Girls’ Band performed frequently throughout the city, enjoying widespread support from the school and community, until budget cuts and personnel transfers brought an end to the proud tradition in 1940. The reasons for the formation of the Lincoln Girls’ Band may never be completely clear, but the demise on the eve of WWII came from a common cause – budget cuts and staff movement. However, the opportunities provided by the Girls’ Band had a lasting impact on the lives of the women who played and in the musical opportunities for women that have continued to develop over the years. Hamilton, Hilree, J.; University of Wisconsin-River Falls. hilree.hamilton@uwrf.edu “Teaching and Learning in Preschool Music: A Methods Class Pre-Service Field Experience.” This classroom-based research project involved examining the teaching and learning experiences of music education majors in the elementary music methods course as they worked with preschool children. The Wisconsin teacher-licensing rule requires that pre-service teachers seeking K-12 licensure in music have experience with preschool children. The following questions guided this study: •In what ways are music education major’s music skills developed as a result of field experiences in which they work with preschool children? •In what ways are music education major’s teaching skills developed as a result of field experiences in which they work with preschool children? •What will music education majors observe and report about as they examine their own teaching and learning in the preschool environment? To prepare, music education students observed at the preschools where they participated in activities appropriate for use in preschool music. Subsequently, they planned lessons and taught them at the university daycare and preschool facilities. Data sources included observation forms, a lesson plan form, an evaluation form completed by both the student and the music education professor, an audiotape of their teaching, and a teaching reflection. While music education majors reported enjoyment for working with the children, they were challenged by how complex seemingly simple activities can be when working with high-energy preschoolers. Students especially commented on concentrating to remember materials, keeping the flow of the lesson and classroom management. As one student stated, “I need to learn how to be playful, yet on-task in this learning environment.” Harding, Robert A.; University of Northern Colorado. al.harding@unco.edu Owens, Douglas, T.; University of Southern Maine. “Music Educators Hearing Threshold Testing Project.” The present study investigates whether music educators may be at risk of noise-induced hearing loss due to exposure to excessive sound pressure levels over extended periods of time. Hearing threshold tests were administered to volunteer music educators during a state music educator’s conference held in 2003. The testing was completed by qualified audiologists in a mobile speech and audiology screening unit. The sample consisted of fifty-three subjects that volunteered for the project. Subjects volunteering for this study ranged in age from eighteen to seventy-four. Using standardized audiometric procedures, pure tones were produced by a clinical audiometer and presented to the subjects via air conduction with standard earphones in one of two sound proof audiometric testing booths contained within the mobile screening unit. All test results were recorded on standard audiogram forms outlining the subject’s hearing threshold at various octaves and half-octaves between the test frequencies of 1,000 Hz and 8,000 Hz. Each subject was provided with a copy of their audiogram and an explanation of the significance of the results.

Results of the hearing threshold tests showed that sixty-eight percent of subjects (N=36) had the audiometric “notch” indicating the presence of noise-induced hearing loss in either one or both ears. Twenty-four percent (N=13) of the subjects had age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) in both ears and four percent (N=2) had presbycusis in one ear. Four percent (N=2) exhibited no signs of hearing loss or only slight losses (5 dB or less). Hartley, Linda A.; University of Dayton. LHartley@udayton.edu Porter, Ann M.; University of Cincinnati. “The Relationship of String Student Enrollment and Retention to Beginning Instructional Grade.” The purpose of this study was to investigate three primary variables with regards to the starting grade level of beginning string instruction: 1) initial enrollment; 2) end of first year enrollment; and 3) enrollment at the seventh grade year of instruction. Several secondary variables were also examined. Research objectives were developed to provide string teachers with information on which to base their decision as they consider the grade level of beginning instruction in their school districts. Of the 556 surveys that were sent to different elementary and middle school string teachers, a response rate of 30.9% generated 166 (N=166) usable surveys for this study. Findings indicate that the majority of string programs begin instruction in the fourth grade (54.8%), followed by 32.5% at the fifth grade beginning instruction level. While there was no significant difference between initial enrollment and the grade level of beginning instruction (p<.07), earlier starting grade levels tended to show a slightly higher initial enrollment. Retention data for both the end of the initial year of instruction and the beginning of 7th grade was correlated with starting grade level, which indicated a higher retention rate for both variables; with the later start grades yielding the highest retention rates. Additionally, this study shows that the end of first year retention is significantly impacted by the number of class meetings per week for beginning string students. Retention of string students is clearly higher when class meetings are more than two days per week. Hash, Phillip M.; Calvin College. pmh3@calvin.edu “Music at the Illinois Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children: 1865-1920.” The purpose of this study was to examine the use of music at the Illinois Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children (IAFMC) from 1865-1920. Research questions focused on 1) the purposes of music within the institution, 2) music instructors, 3) teaching methods, 4) performances, 5) and implications for modern practice. The IAFMC was established in Jacksonville in 1865 to provide a home and education for children with cognitive impairments between 6 and 18 years of age. The facility was moved to Lincoln in 1877 to accommodate an increasing student population, serving 895 residents by 1900. Music was an important part of the curriculum at the IAFMC, used to accompany physical exercise, develop speech, provide recreation, improve socialization, and enhance worship. Both choral and instrumental ensembles were also established for children who demonstrated adequate musical ability. These organizations entertained at the home, performed for visitors, and served as a means of developing public relations with the surrounding community. Jellison, Judith A. and Duke, Robert, A.; University of Texas at Austin. jjellison@mail.utexas.edu “Teachers’ Self-Perceptions of Competence and Their Willingness to Teach Children with Disabilities.” We surveyed 169 practicing music teachers from mostly midwestern states, asking them to rate (1) their enthusiasm for having a student with moderate mental retardation added to one of their classes and (2) their confidence in their abilities to teach the student. Teachers also rank ordered nine fundamental teaching skills according to perceptions of their personal strengths. We found a statistically significant, positive correlation between expressions of enthusiasm for including the student with retardation and expressions of self-confidence, r = 0.58, p < .001, but we found no meaningful relationships between expressions of self-confidence or enthusiasm and years of experience teaching or years of experience teaching in inclusive classrooms. The elementary, secondary, and all-level teachers in our sample tended to rank Musicianship and Knowledge of Repertoire highest among their personal strengths and to rank assessment lowest. In comparing the mean rankings of skills between teachers with high versus low confidence and high versus low enthusiasm, we found that teachers who expressed low confidence in their ability to accommodate the child with retardation ranked Individualizing Instruction and Diagnosing Problems lower and ranked Planning higher than did those who expressed high confidence. Those who expressed low enthusiasm, on average, ranked Musicianship and Knowledge of Repertoire higher and ranked Individualizing Instruction, Feedback, and Behavior Management lower than did those who expressed high enthusiasm. Juchniewicz, Jay; Florida State University. jayjuchniewicz@hotmail.com “The Perception and Restoration of Tonality in Power Chords.” The purpose of this study was to investigate the tonal perception and restoration of power chords within various chord progressions. Fifty-three participants (N = 53) listened to eight chord progressions and rated the degree of tonality, from minor to major, of the final chord for each chord sequence. Additionally, relationships between chord progressions and year in school were also investigated. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences between responses for the chord progressions. Significant differences were also found between each paired set of major and minor chord progressions. Further, significant differences were found between undergraduate and graduate student responses. No significant interactions were found between chord progressions and year in school. Kantorski, Vincent J.; Bowling Green State University. vkantor@bgnet.bgsu.edu “A Content Analysis of Survey Dissertations in Music Education, 2002 – 2006.” The purpose of this study was to analyze the contents of music education dissertations written in 2002 – 2006 that used surveys as the primary method of data collection. A search of the online UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations database for music education dissertations that used surveys during this time period resulted in 149 abstracts. Each abstract was analyzed to determine the year the dissertation was written, type of degree earned, country and institution where it was written, survey distribution method, number of surveys distributed and completed, response rate, and description of respondents and topics. Results showed that 14.65% (n = 149) of the 1,017 music education dissertations written in 2002 – 2006 used surveys and that the number of survey dissertations written annually ranged from 28 to 32. Authors receiving the Ph.D. degree wrote more than half of the dissertations in this study. The largest percentage of teacher respondents were those who taught college followed by those who taught high school. The largest percentage of student respondents were those who attended middle school followed by those who attended college. Topics pertaining to college were addressed more often than those pertaining to high school, middle school, and elementary school, respectively. Topics pertaining to band were addressed more often than those pertaining to choral, orchestra/strings, and general music, respectively. It was suggested that additional survey dissertation research pertaining to orchestra/strings, general music, technology, and jazz is needed. Kelly, Steven N.; Florida State University. skelly@admin.fsu.edu “Public School Supervising Teachers’ Perceptions of Skills and Behaviors Necessary in the Development of Music Student Teachers.” The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) What specific skills and behaviors are considered most important by public school supervising teachers in the development of music student teachers? and (b) Is there a difference in skill and behavior expectations of music student teachers between instrumental music (band/strings) and choral/elementary general music supervising teachers?
A survey was constructed cons
isting of thirty-five items representing a variety of teacher skills and behaviors. The respondents, public school music teachers who had experience in supervising student teachers (N = 112), rated each survey item from 1 (not very important) to 5 (very important) regarding the degree each skill and behavior was considered important in the development of music student teachers. The findings showed that traits receiving the highest ratings did not require direct use of musical skills or knowledge (e.g., playing the piano), or instructional techniques (e.g., dealing effectively with student discipline). Furthermore, the highest rated traits may be considered more social in nature as they are frequently associated with an individual’s personality or personal beliefs (e.g., honest and ethical). The findings suggest that music student teachers should be aware of the high expectations placed on the development of personal characteristics by their supervising teacher during their student teaching experience. Killian, Janice N., Dye, Keith G., and Buckner, Jeremy J.; Texas Tech University. janice.killian@ttu.edu “The Effect of Self-Directed Peer Teaching on Undergraduate Acquisition of Specified Music Teaching Skills.” This study examined the effects of self directed evaluation of peer teaching episodes on the acquisition of observable teaching skills, focusing on the perceived growth of young music educators. Senior music education majors (N=45) taught four teaching episodes to peers, creating new compositions for each teaching episode insuring that each episode would be of unfamiliar material. Students, divided into 3 groups, taught 8-12 minute episodes to a different configuration of peers. Episodes were videoed for self-analysis following the plan/teach/archive/reflect procedure. Instructors monitored submission of materials and guided discussion following each episode; however, teaching quality was not graded. Thus students self-evaluated the quality of their own teaching, and observed peers’ teaching techniques while serving as participants. Data consisted of survey responses and SCRIBE analysis of a sample of 8 videos representative of a variety of teaching skill levels, allowing us to evaluate how the plan/teach/archive/evaluate model worked with differing students. Results indicated that: Pre-service teachers unanimously preferred the use of peer teaching to lecture format. They indicated improvement in confidence (4.63 on a 5 point scale), delivery (4.47), leadership (4.35), planning (4.19), clarity of directions (4.16), use of time (4.13), and eye contact (4.00). They valued the opportunity to teach (3.95 on a 4.0 scale), plan (3.51), and participate/observe their peers (3.50). Composing (3.02) and written reflections (3.19) were rated less positively. Video analyses revealed that although individual teachers exhibited improvement in overall interaction and less teacher talk, much further research is necessary before generalizable statements are possible. Killian, Janice N., and Buckner, Jeremy, J.; Texas Tech University. janice.killian@ttu.edu “Comparison of Starting Pitch Preferences among 4th Graders, Undergraduate Music Majors and Elementary Education Majors.” Singing is reported to account for at least 25% of music classroom instruction, but relatively few studies address what either children or adult singers do when given no teacher guidance. We designed a study to examine what pitches children and adults select when singing a familiar song. Specifically we sought to assess the operant starting pitch of three known songs among adults and elementary students; to corroborate existing evidence that participants distinguish between songs when choosing a starting pitch; and to investigate the possible relationship between pitch choice and pitch accuracy. Music majors (n=30), non-music majors (n= 30) and fourth graders (n=30) were asked to sing “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star,” ” Jingle Bells,” and “Happy Birthday” without any pitch references. Songs were chosen as familiar children’s songs requiring both melodic steps and leaps, and each starting on a different scale degree. Results indicated: 1.All subjects started relatively low in the singing range with chosen pitches clustering about Bb-Middle C. 2.Both children and adult participants appeared to discriminate between songs when choosing a starting pitch. 3.Non-music majors selected significantly lower pitches than music majors or children on particular songs, significantly affecting results. 4.Accurate singers selected significantly higher starting pitches than did less accurate singers. Kinney, Daryl W.; Ohio State University. kinney.61@osu.edu “The Effect of Formal Training in Music and Excerpt Familiarity on the Internal Consistency of Performance Evaluation.” This study was an investigation the effect of musical experience and excerpt familiarity on the internal consistency of performance evaluation. Participants included non-music majors who had received no formal training in music (n = 28), non-music majors whose only training was in a high school performing ensemble (n = 35), music majors (n = 38) and experts (graduate music majors, n = 17, and music faculty, n = 9). Participants listened to 45 piano performances of two familiar stimuli and one unfamiliar stimulus, and rated each for accuracy and musical expression. Of the 45 performances, 15 were repeated within the presentation of stimuli so that internal consistency could be calculated. Results indicated that expertise and familiarity significantly affected (p < .01) internal consistency and that these two factors interacted significantly (p < .01). Internal consistency means reflected linear trends, with more experienced groups demonstrating greater internal consistency for both accuracy and expression evaluations. Greater internal consistency was also evidenced for familiar excerpts, although the effect size associated with this variable was not as large. Findings suggest that expertise is a particularly salient influence on the consistency of performance evaluation. Kinney, Daryl W.; Ohio State University. kinney.61@osu.edu “The Effect of School Performing Ensemble Participation and Select Demographic Variables on the Achievement Test Scores of Urban Middle School Students.” This study was an examination of intact sixth and eighth grade urban middle school students’ achievement test scores both prior to (fourth grade) and during (six or eighth grade) enrollment in a performing ensemble. Comparisons were made based upon ensemble participation (band, choir, none) and individual subject variables of socioeconomic status (SES) and home environment (i.e., single/both parent homes). Fourth and sixth grade achievement tests consisted of Reading, Math, Citizenship and Science subtests, while the eighth grade test included Reading, Math, Social Studies, Science and Language Arts. MANOVA analyses indicated significant differences only for main effects of SES (p < .01) and participation in music (p < .01). Subsequent ANOVA analyses revealed that subjects with higher SES scored significantly higher (p < .01) on all subtests except fourth, sixth and eighth grade Reading (p > .05). Sixth grade band students scored significantly higher (p < .01) than choir students and non-participants on every subtest of the sixth and fourth grade achievement test. Eighth grade band students scored significantly higher than non-participants on fourth grade Reading (p < .01) and Math (p < .05), and every subtest of the eighth grade achievement test except Social Studies (p > .05). Finding similar results for both cohorts suggest that band may attract higher achieving students from the outset, and that test score differences among groups remain stable over time. Kovacs, Ingrid M.; Canarelli Middle School. imingch@yahoo.com “The Influence of Gestalt in Paul Rolland’s Theory of Pedagogy.” This paper discuses the in
fluence of Gestalt Theory on Paul Rolland’s violin pedagogy. A short background study of Gestalt Theory, compared and contrasted with selected approaches to teaching the violin, supports the view that Paul Rolland’s method was unique in the field of string pedagogy. This paper focuses on the concept of developing violin technique within the framework of total body action. I will present selected examples of Rolland’s sequencing to illustrate the points made. Krueger, Patti J.; University of Puget Sound. krueger@ups.ed “Music and Related Arts in Elementary Classroom Student Teacher Practice.” What factors influence music in the curriculum and practice of elementary classroom teachers and student teachers, and in what ways? This study looks at how K-5 elementary classroom student teachers were able to bring music and related arts into their curriculum and practice.
Sixteen student teachers from one Master of Arts in Teaching degree program in Washington were interviewed during the final week of student teaching regarding the teaching of music in their K-5 elementary classrooms throughout student teaching. Student teachers completed a music methods class the semester prior to student teaching.
Though over half of cooperating teachers did not model music teaching, seventy-five percent of student teachers integrated music and related arts in their curriculum, and forty-four percent integrated musical concepts. Elementary school planning schedules significantly influenced interactions between classroom teachers and music specialists. Lack of time was the primary reason given for excluding music by both classroom teachers and student teachers. Standardized testing that was present in grades four and five had a significant impact on teachers’ perceptions of time available for teaching music and related arts. This study recommends that: 1) teacher planning time be scheduled to allow collaboration between music, arts, and classroom teachers; 2) music methods classes include planning and teaching lessons that integrate music and musical concepts with other subject areas; and 3) further research is needed on the impact of standardized testing on music and arts in schools. Latimer, Marvin E.; University of Alabama. mlatimer@music.ua.edu “Harold A. Decker (1914 – 2003) at the Municipal University of Wichita: A Transition to National Prominence.” Harold A. Decker (1914 – 2003), American Choral Music Educator, was one of the notable figures in the development and expansion of choral singing in the twentieth century in the United States of America. His professional distinctions included charter membership in the American Choral Directors Association, of which he was the fourth national president from 1966 to 1968, and national recognition as the fourth recipient of the Robert Lawson Shaw Award. Decker contributed two widely utilized choral methods textbooks: Choral Conducting: A Symposium, co-edited with Julius Herford; and Choral Conducting: Focus On Communication, written with Colleen Kirk. Decker built choral programs at Shurtleff College, the Municipal University of Wichita, and at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign where he developed the first Doctor of Musical Arts Degree in the nation specifically designed for choral conductors. The purpose of this research was to chronicle the professional life and contributions of Harold A. Decker at the Municipal University of Wichita, and place such events within their appropriate socio-cultural and historical contexts. This investigation argued that serendipitous events, economic wherewithal, fortuitous relationships, and the unique socio-cultural milieu in Wichita, Kansas combined with Decker’s ingenuity and his skills as a collaborator to shape his tenure at the Municipal University of Wichita. Such events uniquely positioned Decker for an appointment at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign where he made his most notable contributions to choral singing and choral pedagogy. Lorenzino, Lisa; McGill University, Canada. lisa.lorenzino@mcgill.ca “Strengths of Secondary Music Education in Cuba: Insights for Music Educators.” Performing artists worldwide recognize the prowess of Cuban musicians. Specifically, Cubans are praised for their rhythmic/technical skills and their sense of “feel” or “timba. Musicians are further enamored by how Cuba, with a relatively small population of 11 million, continues to produce a steady stream of young, skilled performing artists that appear more accomplished with each passing year. How Cuba continues to produce such skilled musicians has, until recently, not been well documented outside of the country. 
This paper, one of the first available in English, provides insight into the pedagogical practises and curriculum content of Cuban music educators. Using ethnographic inquiry, the study focuses specifically on an investigation of secondary music education in Cuba. The paper begins by outlining the historical development of the Cuban education system and goes on to highlight the introduction of music into the nation’s schools beginning in 1959. The paper continues with a discussion of findings that focus on the interplay between curriculum and pedagogy. 
The findings reveal that the Cuban formal music education is radically different than that found in many North American countries as related to curriculum organization and philosophy of pedagogy. The paper concludes with suggestions as to how music educators could adapt/adopt the strengths of the Cuban system of music education into their own programs. Matthews, Wendy K.; Northern Virginia Community College. wmatthew@gmu.edu Kitsantas, Anastasia; George Mason University. “Effects of the Conductor’s Goal Orientation and Use of Shared Performance Cues on Instrumentalists’ Self-Regulation, Motivation, and Performance in Large Musical Ensembles.” The present study examined the effects of the conductor’s goal orientation (mastery vs. performance) and use of shared performance cues (basic vs. interpretive vs. expressive) on instrumentalists’ self-efficacy, collective efficacy, attributional beliefs, and performance in musical ensembles. Using a 2 x 3 design (goal orientation x shared performance cues), 81 university instrumentalists were randomly assigned to six conditions. Partial support for the hypotheses was found indicating that participants in the mastery goal orientation condition reported a higher degree of collective efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs. Instrumentalists’ attributions and performance were not affected by goal orientation. The conductor’s use of expressive shared performance cues positively affected instrumentalists’ collective efficacy, self-efficacy, attributions, and performance. An interaction of goals and cues for collective efficacy beliefs regarding ability and unity as well as an interaction for musical performance was found. These results are discussed from a social cognitive perspective of self-regulation. Findings of this study may provide some guidance on how conductors can create effective rehearsal environments.