2008 Research Poster Session II Abstracts – Part 2

2008 MENC National Conference Research Poster Session Abstracts

 

Research Poster Session IResearch Poster Session IIResearch Poster Session III
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Research Poster Session II, Part 2

Madsen, Clifford K. and Geringer, John; Florida State University. cmadsen@mailer.fsu.edu
Madsen, Katia; Louisiana State University.
“Adolescent Musicians’ Perception of Conductors within Musical Context.”

McDowell, Carol; Southeast Missouri State University. cmcdowell@semo.edu
“Missouri Universities Alternative Certification Programs: Friend or Foe to Music Education?”

McGuire, Kenneth; University of Alabama. kmcguire@bama.ua.edu
“The Relationship between Presentation (Audio-Visual, Audio, Live), Participant Involvement, and Song Identification among Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Children.”

Menard, Elizabeth and Cassidy, Jane; Louisiana State University. emenar3@lsu.edu
“The Talented Arts Program: Reaching Talented Musicians via Videoconference Classes.”

Mishra, Jennifer; University of Houston. jmishra@uh.edu
“Preservice Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Strings.”

Mishra, Jennifer; University of Houston. jmishra@uh.edu
“Encoding Specificity Effect in Musical Memory.”

Montemayor, Mark, and Moss, Emily A.; University of Northern Colorado. mark.montemayor@unco.edu
“Effect of Recorded Models on Novice Conductors’ Rehearsal Verbalizations and Evaluations.”

Oare, Steven; Wichita State University. steve.oare@wichita.edu
“Practice and the Middle School Band Student.”

Ozeke, Sezen; Uludag University, Turkey. sezenozeke@uludag.edu.tr
Humphreys, Jere; Arizona State University.
“Music Teacher Education Programs in the Republic of Turkey:1982-1998.”

Petersen, Gerry; Phoenix Union School District. gpetersen@phxhs.k12.az.us
“Factors Contributing to Arizona Elementary General Music Teachers’ Attitudes and Practices Regarding Multicultural Music Education.”

Pinar, Colleen; Independent Scholar.     colleenpinar@yahoo.com
“Music Education History: Wisconsin Normal Schools, the Milwaukee Public Schools, and the Adoption of the Natural Music Course.”

Pinar, Colleen; Independent Scholar.     colleenpinar@yahoo.com
“Content Analysis of Women Composer’s Contributions to Music Basals Published Before 1900.”

Puller, Shawn I.; Florida State University. spuller@gmail.com
“Demographic Study of Applied Voice Teachers in Selected Four-Year Institutions in the United States.”

Rose, Paige; University of Central Arkansas. prose@uca.edu
“Effects of Contextual Interference on the Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of a Music Motor Skill Among University Musicians.”

Scherler, Kathy L., Hollabaugh, Linda; Midwestern State University. kathy.scherler@mwsu.edu
“Phenomenological Interviewing: Reflections of Elementary Music Teachers and English Language Learners.”

Shelfo, Kerri L.; Fairfax County Public Schools. kerri.shelfo@fcps.edu
Hewitt, Michael P.; University of Maryland.
“The Status of Inclusive Education in a Mid-Atlantic State School Band and Orchestra Programs.”

Siebenaler, Dennis; California State University. dsiebenaler@fullerton.edu
“Children’s Choirs: In Pursuit of Excellence.”

Sikes, Paul; Texas A & M University, and University of Houston. plsikes@uh.edu
“Practice Strategies Advocated by Secondary Music Teachers.”

Silvey, Brian A.; University of Texas-Austin. brianasilvey@mail.utexas.edu
“The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators’ Judgments of Music Performance.”

Simmons, Amy L.; University of Texas-San Antonio. Amy.Simmons@utsa.edu
“Effects of Memory Consolidation on Musicians’ Retention of a Motor Sequence.”

Sims, Wendy, L.; University of Missouri- Columbia. simsw@missouri.edu
Cecconi-Roberts, Lecia; Vail Ranch Middle School.
Keast, Dan; University of Texas Permian Basin.
“Preschoolers’ Uses of a Music Listening Center during Free-Choice Time.”

Smith, Derek; Lincoln University. smithd1@lincolnu.edu
“Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance.”

Soto, Amanda Christina, and Shehan Campbell, Patricia; University of Washington. sotoa@u.washington.edu
Lum, Chee-Hoo; Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
“Out of the Citadel and into the Field: A University-School Music Partnership for University Students in a Culturally Diverse Community.”

Stambaugh, Laura A., and Demorest, Steven M.; University of Washington. stambl@u.washington.edu
“The Effect of Contextual Interference on Instrumental Practice: An Application of Motor Learning Theory.”

Standley, Jayne M., Walworth, Darcy, Nguyen, Judy, and Belgrave, Melita; Florida State University. jstandle@mailer.fsu.edu
Hilmer, Miriam; Tallahassee Memorial HealthCare.
“Infant and Toddler Participation in Structured Group Music Activities: The First Attendance Response.”

Stover, Pamela; Southern Illinois University. pstover@siu.edu
“Kinder Musizieren: Orff Schulwerk on Bavarian Television, 1957-1960.”

Taylor, Donald M.; University of North Texas. dtaylor@music.unt.edu
“The Effect of Practice Context on Synchronization in Elementary Instrumental Performance.”

Thornton, Linda; Pennsylvania State University. lct12@psu.edu
“Transfer Between General and Instrumental Classes: An Exploratory Study.”

Tutt, Kevin; Grand Valley State University. tuttk@gvsu.edu
“The Effect of Rehearsal Technique on Students’ Written Criteria for Evaluating Music.”

VanWeelden, Kimberly, and Mason, Emily; Florida State University. kvanweelden@fsu.edu
“Children’s Ability to Identify Female Vocal Models’ Register Placement by Timbre and Use of Vibrato.”

Walls, Kimberly C.; Auburn University. kim.walls@auburn.edu
“Professional Development and Program Satisfaction of Music Teachers in a Graduate Distance Learning Program.”

Watts, Sarah H. and Shehan Campbell, Patricia; University of Washington. shw4@u.washington.edu
“American Folk Songs for Children: Ruth Crawford Seeger’s Music-Educational Contributions.”


Madsen, Clifford K. and Geringer, John; Florida State University. cmadsen@mailer.fsu.edu
Madsen, Katia; Louisiana State University.
“Adolescent Musicians’ Perception of Conductors within Musical Context.”

Perception of changes occurring in music has a long history of research. Indeed, attention to subtle changes in music whether inadvertent or purposeful occupies a great deal of practice and rehearsal time for the performer. Regardless of the extremely subtle acoustic changes that are perceptible within almost all studies, it is the total overall effect that most occupies the individual listener. A long line of research indicates that often many subtle “music changes” are not perceived accurately and are actually mistakenly identified. This study investigated spliced versions of Johann Strauss’ Blue Danube Waltz all performed by the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra with various conductors. One group of adolescent orchestral musicians grades 7-12 participated in the study (N = 38). All subjects listened to two conditions: 1) audio-only and 2) audio/video combination. Results indicated that subjects were not able to correctly identify that there were five different conductors in the audio-only condition. Additionally, many students indicated that there were differences in the audio portions of the two conditions when in fact there were not.

McDowell, Carol; Southeast Missouri State University. cmcdowell@semo.edu
“Missouri Universities Alternative Certification Programs: Friend or Foe to Music Education?”

This study examines Missouri alternative teacher certification (ATC) programs for music education by analyzing the following questions: (a) What are the entry requirements to the program?, (b) What are the course requirements for the various music-education alternative certification programs offered at various universities?, (c) When/how are the music-education course requirements delivered?, (d) How long do alternative certification music teachers remain in the profession?, and (e) Have alternative certification programs reduced the shortage of music educators? Of the 38 Missouri higher-education institutions that have teacher-preparation programs leading to a teaching license, 18 have developed ATC programs, five of which offer music-education ATC. While the five programs have similar entry requirements, the course requirements vary in content and delivery. All have similar classes (reading, general/specific teaching techniques, curriculum, etc.), yet no program mentioned specific, required music-education courses. Of the 60 people who finished an alternative certificate in Missouri since 2000, only 38 remained in teaching during the 2006-2007 school year. ATC program questions and concerns are also discussed.

McGuire, Kenneth; University of Alabama. kmcguire@bama.ua.edu
“The Relationship between Presentation (Audio-Visual, Audio, Live), Participant Involvement, and Song Identification among Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Children.”

The purpose of this investigation was to observe the concomitant relationships between presentation mode (audio, audio-visual, and live), participant involvement (active and passive), and song identification among pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children. Results indicated that (a) active participation was more likely to result in successful task completion for some students when they learned material from either an audio-visual or a live mode than when they learned it from an audio one; (b) when students were taught via an audio-visual mode, song identification of some students was more likely to occur if they participated actively; (c) active participation during an audio stimulus produced adverse results for some students; and (d) an audio mode produced significantly better results than an audio-visual mode when some non-participating students were compared. Implications for people interested in televised or mediated learning environments are discussed.

Menard, Elizabeth and Cassidy, Jane; Louisiana State University. emenar3@lsu.edu
“The Talented Arts Program: Reaching Talented Musicians via Videoconference Classes.”

The first purpose of this study was to examine the use of identification procedures and provision of services for K-12 children who have exceptional ability in music. An internet survey focused on the general state of accessibility of instruction for gifted and talented students in this country. While the greatest area of focus was found to be on the intellectual and academically gifted, 11 states reported plans to identify gifted and talented students in the area of performing arts. The state of Louisiana was found to have a novel program in place to identify and address the needs of the gifted and talented in music, however there was a lack of consistency around the state in providing services. Therefore, the second purpose of they study was to investigate whether videoconference music classes could be an adequate method of delivering instruction to children identified as gifted and talented musicians in those Louisiana parishes where students were not provided access to accelerated music instruction. Findings of a pilot videoconference talented music program indicated positive results in using this technology to reach students in remote areas that lack access to qualified teachers or the funds to develop such programs.

Mishra, Jennifer; University of Houston. jmishra@uh.edu
“Preservice Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Strings.”

Preservice teachers (n = 53) indicated the likelihood of accepting hypothetical teaching positions reflecting different grade levels, levels of responsibility, and duties, with and without string instruction. Multifactorial repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed significant interactions by duty and specialization [F(8, 200) = 15.91, p = .000] and by duty, responsibility, and specialization [F(8,300) = 2.04, p = .043]. Preservice teachers were most likely to consider accepting a teaching position in their specialty area and though somewhat uncomfortable, band and choir specialists would consider a position that included limited string teaching (e.g., one string class, pit orchestra). Preservice teachers were more likely to accept an assistant director position especially outside of their specialization. Experience in a string method course [F(1, 45) = 3.175, p = .082] did not influence general attitudes toward string teaching, however specific experience in a pit or full orchestra affected the likelihood of accepting positions which included these ensembles.

Mishra, Jennifer; University of Houston. jmishra@uh.edu
“Encoding Specificity Effect in Musical Memory.”

An incidental musical recall task was given to 13 musicians. When memory failed, cues (either visual or aural) were provided to determine whether additional musical material was remembered. Visual cues were successful on 96.67% of presentations but aural cues were successful only 40.74% of the time. Based on assumptions underlying the encoding specificity principle, a close connection between retrieval and encoding operations was hypothesized. To test this hypothesis, an encoding/retrieval paradigm was used to determine whether recognition for musical stimuli would be affected by a change in presentation mode. Sixty randomly selected music majors were presented ten melodic fragments either aurally or visually (notation) and asked to rate the tonality of the stimuli on a four-point likert scale. In an incidental recognition task, participants indicated which, in a series of melodic fragments matched the original targets and which were new fragments. For half of the participants, the recognition test stimuli were in the alternate presentation mode. There were no significant main effect mean differences (p < .05) by presentation mode, but there was a significant interaction effect. When the recognition test was presented in the same mode as the learning task, more of the melodic fragments were recognized. When presentation mode changed, recognition decreased. No evidence of auditory superiority effects emerged based on the lack of significant main effect differences. Material in both presentation modes was effectively retrieved if presentation mode was matched at test. The results of this study effectively demonstrate a connection between encoding and retrieval.

Montemayor, Mark, and Moss, Emily A.; University of Northern Colorado. mark.montemayor@unco.edu
“Effect of Recorded Models on Novice Conductors’ Rehearsal Verbalizations and Evaluations.”

As part of an ongoing study involving 20 subjects, seven preservice instrumental music teachers conducted high school bands in a series of four 15-minute rehearsals (two rehearsals on each of two different pieces). To prepare for their first two rehearsals, the teachers were given only the conductor score of the piece they were to conduct, while for their second two rehearsals, they were given both a score and a recorded model of the piece on an audio compact disc. Video recordings of all 28 rehearsals were systematically observed for frequencies and distributions of teachers’ verbal behavior across several musical categories and across selected teaching variables. The teachers also completed post-rehearsal questionnaires in which they evaluated various aspects of their teaching and of the ensemble’s playing. Differences between experimental conditions were small, with teachers’ rehearsal verbalizations reflecting a lesser concern for Tone Quality in the model-supported condition. Also, their written evaluations of rehearsal were less self-directed and were more critical of the ensemble, a finding consistent with previous research. We suggest that listening to recorded models may inform novice teachers’ musicianship, but it exerts little positive influence on their musical leadership.

Oare, Steven; Wichita State University. steve.oare@wichita.edu
“Practice and the Middle School Band Student.”

With the intent of improving the teaching of practice strategies to young musicians, the purpose of this multiple case study was to discover how students use goal setting and self-assessment within their personal practice sessions and how these self-regulative components affect strategy choice and motivation. This study entailed the observation of middle school aged instrumental music students (N=6) during their individual practice. Two students were in eighth grade and four were in seventh grade. The students played flute, clarinet, saxophone, and trombone. Data was collected via field notes, videotape analysis of three practice sessions per student along with concurrent and retrospective verbal reports, focus group interviews before and after the observation cycle, and an interview with the students’ band director. Data were analyzed within cases and across cases for emergent themes. Four themes describe a cyclical practice process in which students moved from motivation, to goal setting, to strategy use, to assessment. Each stage of the cycle seemed to drive other stages. Students with learning goal orientations seemed to practice more effectively than students with performance or time orientations. Student goals tended to lack specificity, which negatively influenced student choice of practice strategy and self-assessment. Three external factors were found that had a strong influence on the practice cycle, including teachers, musical aural image, and learning development. These three factors wove their way through all four stages of the practice cycle.

Ozeke, Sezen; Uludag University, Turkey. sezenozeke@uludag.edu.tr
Humphreys, Jere; Arizona State University.
“Music Teacher Education Programs in the Republic of Turkey:1982-1998.”

The history of music teacher education in the Republic period began with the establishment of the Music Teacher Training School in 1924. In 1937, the task of music teacher education was given to the Music Branch of the Gazi Secondary Teacher School and Training Institute. Gazi’s role as the lone music teacher-training institute ended in 1969, when the Marmara Education Institute in Ýstanbul began to train music teachers. In 1973, the Buca Education Institute in Ýzmir joined the other two and included music in its program. After Uludað University in Bursa added a music education department in 1981, there were four music institutions in Turkey. In 1982, the Turkish constitution was changed to include new provisions for higher education. As a result of this restructuring, higher education was placed under the Yüksek Öðretim Kurumu (Higher Education Council). Therefore, in 1982, the Gazi Higher Teacher School Music Department changed its name to Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eðitim Fakültesi Müzik Eðitimi Bölümü (Gazi University Gazi Education Faculty Music Education Department). The other three music departments immediately followed Gazi. A major restructuring in 1998 affected all Turkish university’s education faculties directly and significantly. The purpose of the present study was to examine the first four music teacher education programs in Turkey between 1982 and 1998. The study focuses on the curricula at these first four major music education departments in Turkey from 1982-98, with a look at the subsequent period.

Petersen, Gerry; Phoenix Union School District. gpetersen@phxhs.k12.az.us
“Factors Contributing to Arizona Elementary General Music Teachers’ Attitudes and Practices Regarding Multicultural Music Education.”

The purpose of this study was to provide specific data regarding the level of multiculturalism of Arizona elementary general music teachers and their utilization of multicultural music education in curriculum and activities. Data gathered was used to investigate the relationship between a teacher’s life experience, personal attitudes, personal behavior, and professional behavior with their developing and employing multicultural music education. Subjects included Arizona elementary general music teachers (N=280) during the 2004-05 school year. The Personal Multicultural Assessment and the Music Specialist’s Multicultural Music Education Survey were sent to the teachers along with a demographic report sheet. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, correlational analysis (Pearson-Product Moment Correlation), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and a multiple regression. The results of the survey indicated that Arizona elementary general music teachers are functioning at varying levels of multiculturalism. Life Experience was a significant factor in determining music teachers’ utilization of multicultural music education, while Personal Behavior, Professional Behavior, and Personal Attitude regarding multiculturalism may not have effected their utilization of multicultural music education. Statistically significant relationships were found between the population of the teachers’ hometown and the Life Experience subscale score and the Composite score. The undergraduate institution from which the teacher graduated was positively related to the Personal Behavior subscale score and the Composite score. Though the majority of Arizona elementary general music teachers felt inadequately prepared for teaching multicultural music education or have ethnic instruments, they reported utilizing the majority of regional-specific world music.

Pinar, Colleen; Independent Scholar. colleenpinar@yahoo.com
“Music Education History: Wisconsin Normal Schools, the Milwaukee Public Schools, and the Adoption of the Natural Music Course.”

Understanding historical implications of early music curriculum and music teacher training is part of most, if not all, graduate music education students degree programs. Furthermore, historical implications in music education are equally as important current music educators . Therefore, it is believe that historical research on curriculum and teacher training needs to be updated based on current research and new historical findings. The Natural Music Course and the “New School of Methods” are classic examples of early teacher training and curriculum that were influential in early American educational philosophies and practices as well as early education practitioner’s preparation. Yet, the Natural Music Course and the “New School of Methods” are understudied and are only discussed very briefly in a few current music education history textbooks and articles.
This study will examine the Natural Music Course and the “New School of Methods” curriculum and its impact on early teacher training in Wisconsin normal schools and textbook adoption by the Milwaukee Public Schools. Like many schools, the Milwaukee Public Schools experienced periods of economic hardships where the grade teacher found themselves instructing music as-well-as a number of sociological and political controversies over music textbook adoptions. Although at this time it is unclear how many students studied the Natural Music Course through the Wisconsin Normal Schools and the Milwaukee Public Schools, it is quite obvious that music and music education is a very important aspect of schools, that adopted the Natural Music Course, historical foundations as well as foundations present and future.

Pinar, Colleen; Independent Scholar. colleenpinar@yahoo.com
“Content Analysis of Women Composer’s Contributions to Music Basals Published Before 1900.”

The purpose of this study is to explore women composer’s contributions to music basals before 1900. The years surrounding the turn of the twentieth century comprises an era of rapid expansion in developmental and philosophical approaches to education. Still, it was considered unusual and even sometimes unwelcoming for women to publish their compositions in music basals. It was found that woman composers were identified in many different ways. In the case of a married woman, to apply “Mrs.” in front of her husband’s name; or in the case of a single woman, to apply “Miss” to her last name, leaving out her first name. This obviously was the easiest indication of a women composers. Even when both names were provided, it often was difficult, in some cases, to ascertain the gender of the composer due to first names associated with both genders. However, most often composers were listed by last name only, by first initial and last name, or listed as anonymous. This made it impossible to identify gender. Although the total number of contributions are few, in comparison to their male counterparts, it was found that women were indeed active in composing music for music basals before 1900.

Puller, Shawn I.; Florida State University. spuller@gmail.com
“Demographic Study of Applied Voice Teachers in Selected Four-Year Institutions in the United States.”

Although twice as many females as males are enrolled in doctoral voice programs little is known about the actual demographic make-up of applied voice teachers in post-secondary institutes. A demographic profile of voice programs in four-year institutions within the United States (N=887) was completed during October 2006 through June 2007 for one state from each of the National Association of Teachers of Singing (NATS) 14 regions. Of the 1,590 voice teachers listed, females (n=997) accounted for 63% while males (n=605) comprised only 38 %. However, a similar number of males (n=324) and females (n=368) were listed as holding full-time faculty positions. In addition, a similar number of males (n=197) and females (n=226) were listed as having earned a doctoral degree. Over one-third of all voice teachers (n=581) provided instruction in areas outside of their applied specialty area. These results and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Rose, Paige; University of Central Arkansas. prose@uca.edu
“Effects of Contextual Interference on the Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of a Music Motor Skill Among University Musicians.”

The contextual interference hypothesis holds that simple motor skill tasks are best learned when practiced under blocked, repetitive conditions, but retention and transfer are best accomplished when the skill has been practiced in varied conditions. The purpose of this study was to measure effects of contextual interference practice conditions on acquisition, retention, and transfer of a complex task—right hand lead percussion sticking technique among university musicians, classified as bimanual, unimanual, and non-manual according to applied performance area. All participants (N = 120) experienced an acquisition phase, learning sticking patterns in either blocked, varied, or control conditions. Participants took part in two retention and transfer task, with the first occurring five minutes after acquisition. The second followed latency periods of thirty minutes, one hour, six hours, or twenty-four hours. Performances were evaluated according to rhythm and pattern accuracy. Evidence of a contextual interference effect resided in the acquisition phase, where varied participants experienced more error than blocked counterparts. In subsequent retention and transfer tasks, rhythm and pattern accuracy for both groups was equivalent. Primary performance area had a significant effect on rhythm and pattern accuracy during the pretest, retention, and transfer tasks; non-manual vocalists scored significantly below instrumentalists. Unimanual musicians were equivalent to bimanual counterparts. Effects of posttest retention and transfer latency timings were absent. Overall, slight increases in rhythm accuracy and significant increases in pattern accuracy occurred from pretest to retention. Both rhythm and pattern accuracy scores declined during the transfer task.

Scherler, Kathy L., Hollabaugh, Linda; Midwestern State University. kathy.scherler@mwsu.edu
“Phenomenological Interviewing: Reflections of Elementary Music Teachers and English Language Learners.”

Phenomenological Interviewing: Reflections of Elementary Music Teachers and English Language Learners Shifting language and cultural landscapes are found in American public schools. English language learners (ELL) students are an emergent student population. Language barriers are a challenge to monolingual English-only speaking elementary music teachers as they instruct ELL students. Phenomenological interviewing is a tool used in two subsequent research studies to derive meaning from music teachers and ELL students of their experiences. The purpose of the first study was to investigate the teaching practice and curricular decisions of elementary music teachers who instruct Hispanic ELL students. The main research question was, “What are the participating teachers’ reflections about their curricular and pedagogical decisions when teaching ELL students?” Through a phenomenological research paradigm, this study reveals meanings constructed by music educators instructing English language learners. A cross-case analysis of the teachers’ reflections and the researchers’ observations revealed themes regarding the teachers’ instructional strategies in teaching ELL students, the meaning making associated with these strategies, as well as additional information deemed important by the elementary music teachers in their instruction of ELL students. The second study also used phenomenological interviewing to investigate the English language learner students in the elementary music classroom. The phenomenological interview process was adapted to accommodate student age and language ability. The emic perspective given by the students presented their viewpoint of what it is like to attend public school as a non-English speaker and participate in music classrooms taught by English-only speaking elementary music teachers.

Shelfo, Kerri L.; Fairfax County Public Schools. kerri.shelfo@fcps.edu
Hewitt, Michael P.; University of Maryland.
“The Status of Inclusive Education in a Mid-Atlantic State School Band and Orchestra Programs.”

The purpose of this study was to determine the status of inclusion in instrumental music programs in STATE public schools and the attitudes of instrumental music teachers towards the inclusion of students with disabilities into their instrumental music programs. Participants (N = 214) completed an online survey which assessed the representation of disabilities in instrumental music classes, teacher preparation, inclusion practices and teacher attitudes. Data revealed poor representation of students with mental retardation in instrumental music classes, discrepancies in the implementation of inclusion, and conflicting teacher attitudes toward inclusion and specific disabilities. These data will be discussed in light of national statistics on inclusive education and the manner in which they might impact instrumental music programs and music teacher preparation.

Siebenaler, Dennis; California State University. dsiebenaler@fullerton.edu
“Children’s Choirs: In Pursuit of Excellence.”

Music educators have long agreed that children should sing alone and in groups, as evident in the National Standards of our profession. Unfortunately, teacher efforts to help children sing beautifully are not always successful. The present pilot study examined the specific behaviors of conductors and singers in rehearsal, providing a detailed profile of interactions in two choral rehearsals. Two expert choral conductors from two children’s choirs in Southern California were selected for observation. The two conductors were rehearsing training choirs (ages approximately 9-11). Computer software, SCRIBE (Simple Computer Recorder Interface for Behavioral Evaluation, Duke & Farra, 2007) was used as an observation tool. Teacher and student behaviors were coded and recorded during several viewings of the videotaped rehearsals. Teacher directives were the most frequent type of verbalization (an average of 2.4/minute), considerably more frequent than teacher questions (0.5/minute), information (0.86/minute) or feedback (0.87/minute). The high rates (1.78/minute) and percentages (14.26%) of teacher modeling were additional indicators of active involvement by the teachers. Both choirs were engaged in singing an average of 38% of the analyzed excerpt. The “sing-all” episodes were frequent and brief. Both teachers and students were actively involved. This profile of successful choral rehearsals may be helpful to other teachers/conductors. Positive choral experiences for young people may encourage continued participation in music and the arts.

Sikes, Paul; Texas A & M University, and University of Houston. plsikes@uh.edu
“Practice Strategies Advocated by Secondary Music Teachers.”

The purpose of the study was to discover what practice strategies secondary music teachers advocate in their ensembles and how often they advocate them. The participants were 49 secondary music teachers from three large school districts in a major metropolitan area gathered for an annual meeting. At the conclusion of the meeting, members were asked to voluntarily fill out the Teacher Practice Strategy Survey (TPSS). It was found that secondary music teachers advocated four practice strategies almost daily. These were “I instruct my students to mark their music”, “I instruct my students to break the music into short sections and learn them separately”, “I instruct my students to practice a section slowly until they can play it perfectly then increase the tempo” and “I instruct my students to tap or count difficult rhythms.” While each of these strategies are considered effective by the teachers involved in this survey, they all focus on the short term goal of performing a specific piece of music. Focusing so much on these strategies does not encourage the development of two of the important concepts of expert performance; developing a mental representation and evaluating musical performance. Secondary music teachers are encouraged to teach a wider range of practice strategies so as to develop these other important elements of effective practice.

Silvey, Brian A.; University of Texas-Austin. brianasilvey@mail.utexas.edu
“The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators’ Judgments of Music Performance.”

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of band labels on music evaluators’ judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), high school wind ensemble members (n = 77), and current or former high school band directors with evaluation experience (n = 8) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Band Label or No Label. Those in the Band Label group were given evaluation forms that described each excerpt as being played by either a “Wind Ensemble” or “Concert Band,” while the No Label group used forms that did not specify ensemble type. Participants were lead to believe that each of the twelve excerpts were played by different ensembles and were not made aware that six excerpts had actually been repeated twice under varying labels. Separate two-factor analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to compare the ratings given by evaluators from each group to identical excerpts that were presented twice. Results of these statistical tests showed a significant interaction between label and excerpt order presentation for two pairs of excerpts among evaluators in the Band Label group who were members of high school concert bands. No further significant main effects or interactions between label and excerpt presentation order were found for any excerpt pairs in any of the three evaluator groups. Although no statistically significant main effects of label condition were found, experienced evaluators and wind ensemble members generally rated performances labeled as “Wind Ensemble” higher than those labeled as “Concert Band.”

Simmons, Amy L.; University of Texas-San Antonio. Amy.Simmons@utsa.edu
“Effects of Memory Consolidation on Musicians’ Retention of a Motor Sequence.”

Recent research has shown that both the speed and accuracy of novel motor skills improve during sleep in a process called consolidation. Such off-line learning in the absence of practice has been demonstrated numerous times with learners performing relatively simple tasks, and once with musicians performing a music task. In this experiment, I sought to determine whether experienced learners performing a music skill obtain similar sleep-dependent improvements in note accuracy and performance speed. Participants learned a 9-note sequence on a keyboard in three sessions that were separated by 5 minutes, 6 hours, or 24 hours. Intersession intervals were designed to assess the effects of distributing practice across intervals that do not include sufficient time for memory consolidation (5-minute group), that include time for wake-based consolidation (6-hour group), or that include both wake- and sleep-based consolidation (24-hour group). I found significant sleep-dependent improvements in performance accuracy in the retest that followed the first night of sleep (24-hour group), and no significant improvements following intervals that did not include sleep (5-minute and 6-hour groups). I observed significant enhancements in performance speed in Session 2 for all three groups, and continued enhancements in Session 3 for the wake- and sleep-based consolidation groups. These results are consistent with the findings of Simmons and Duke (2006) and contribute new information to what is known about procedural skill learning.

Sims, Wendy, L.; University of Missouri- Columbia. simsw@missouri.edu
Cecconi-Roberts, Lecia; Vail Ranch Middle School.
Keast, Dan; University of Texas Permian Basin.
“Preschoolers’ Uses of a Music Listening Center during Free-Choice Time.”

The purpose of this study was to observe preschool-aged children’s use of a music listening center made available during their regular free-choice activity time. The activities in which 9 focus children engaged each day for 4 consecutive days of free-choice time were timed and recorded when the children were 4 years old, and for 4 more days one year later when they were 5 (approximately 6.45 hours per child). The use of the listening center by all children in the classes being observed (N = 37) also was documented. For the focus children, time spent per visit at the music center averaged 9.72 minutes at age 4, and 9.52 min at age 5. On average, at age 4 the focus children spent 29.9% of their daily free choice time at the listening center, and at age 5, the average was 19.7%. The significant correlation found between responses of the focus children at the interval of one year was consistent with individual listening patterns described in the literature. For all children over the two years, average duration per visit was 12.76 min for 4-year-olds and 11.52 min for 5-year-olds, with 20 instances of children spending greater than 20 min in one sitting. Many of the children spent time at the center comparable to, or greater than, time spent in the competing activities.

Smith, Derek; Lincoln University. smithd1@lincolnu.edu
“Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance.”

The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Statements descriptive of wind jazz improvisation were collected through analysis of pedagogical materials, jazz educator descriptions, published interviews of jazz musicians, and research articles. Decisions to retain, combine, modify, or reject items were made largely based on input from accomplished jazz musicians and the knowledge and expertise of the researcher. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record two improvisations—two choruses of Bb blues and one chorus of Killer Joe accompanied by an Aebersold play-along compact disc. Sixty-three adjudicators with varying degrees of jazz experience evaluated the 12 improvisations using the WJIES and the Instrumental Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Measure (IJIEM; May, 2003). Reliability was good, with alpha values ranging from .87 to .95. Construct Validity for the WJIES was confirmed through the analysis of a multitrait-multimethod matrix (MTMM; Campbell & Fiske, 1959). The results of this study indicate that the facet-rational approach is an effective method of developing a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The findings also suggest that: (a) advanced jazz improvisation is closely related to elements associated with creativity and expression, and (b) adjudicators might benefit from structured training sessions prior to judging jazz improvisation performance.

Soto, Amanda Christina, and Shehan Campbell, Patricia; University of Washington. sotoa@u.washington.edu
Lum, Chee-Hoo; Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
“Out of the Citadel and into the Field: A University-School Music Partnership for University Students in a Culturally Diverse Community.”

The emergence of university-community collaborations is a fairly recent phenomenon, one which has manifested itself through the establishment of university partnerships with schools. This research sought to document the process and outcomes of a university-school collaboration called Music Alive! in the Valley (MAV), a year-long partnership devised to provide a civic engagement of university music education students and faculty with children, teachers, and various townspeople within a rural location of a western state. MAV was intended to serve a Mexican-American community in which migrant workers live and whose children frequently spoke only Spanish at home, where occasions were provided to university students of music education for positive social contact via musical performances, participation, and training experiences. An ethnographic method was employed by which observations, interviews, and examination of material culture were assembled over the course of the school year, and a bricolage of experiences were sorted and classified thematically, and brought into a cohesive description of considerations in the making of a school-university partnership. An assessment was offered of the benefits and challenges in the creation of a music education partnership in distinctive (and remote) cultural communities, and recommendations are suggested for future university-school partnerships that hold the potential to enrich the lives of all who participate in them.

Stambaugh, Laura A., and Demorest, Steven M.; University of Washington. stambl@u.washington.edu
“The Effect of Contextual Interference on Instrumental Practice: An Application of Motor Learning Theory.”

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three practice schedules on technical accuracy, musicality, and attitude of seventh-grade clarinet and saxophone players. The practice schedules were drawn from motor learning research, which identifies blocked, random, and serial practice conditions. This study compared blocked practice schedule (completing practice on one song before switching to the next song), serial practice schedule (rotating practice among three songs in a frequently repeating order), and hybrid schedule (longer duration of the serial sequence). Students were tested immediately after one 18 minute practice session and 24 hours later. No significant differences were found between groups by practice schedule for technical accuracy, musicality, or attitude. There was an interaction between practice schedule and trial for musicality scores with the hybrid group’s scores decreasing at retention while the other two groups increased. We conclude that while none of the schedules demonstrated a clear learning advantage, there is no evidence to support limiting students to blocked-style practice schedules.

Standley, Jayne M., Walworth, Darcy, Nguyen, Judy, and Belgrave, Melita; Florida State University. jstandle@mailer.fsu.edu
Hilmer, Miriam; Tallahassee Memorial HealthCare.
“Infant and Toddler Participation in Structured Group Music Activities: The First Attendance Response.”

There is little research on benefits of structured group activities for infants despite their popularity and the importance of early experience on cognitive development. This study describes infant responses during first attendance at group musical activities. Videotapes of two groups averaging 8 (n=11) vs. 16 months (n=11) were observed. Using SCRIBE software, cumulative time spent in six categories of attending responses differentiated by independence or proximity status with parents was ascertained. Results showed that age did make a difference in focus of attention when in parental contact. The younger children watched their parents and the music instruments significantly longer. When the children were independent, older children focused significantly more attention across all categories. The younger children spent 97% of their time in physical contact with their parents while the older children spent 66%. During contact with the parent, both groups spent the greatest percentage of their time attending to the music therapist (24-34%) and to their peers (13-18%). The younger children emitted almost no responses when independent of parents. Results showed that when the children of both ages were in contact with their parents, there was no significant difference in time attending to their peers during music vs. no music. However, when the children were independent, they spent significantly more time observing their peers during the music moments. On the motor hierarchy list, the highest skill observed on average for both groups was the ability to move horizontally with a grounded crawl, scoot, or slither across the floor.

Stover, Pamela; Southern Illinois University. pstover@siu.edu
“Kinder Musizieren: Orff Schulwerk on Bavarian Television, 1957-1960.”

In 1957, Gunild Keetman and Godela Orff took to the Bavarian television airwaves, broadcasting eighteen episodes of Kinder Musizieren. This historical paper documents the production and contents of these broadcasts, including the people involved, air times, teaching sequence, concepts and song materials—most coming from Musik für Kinder. Archival research methods were used in gathering data. Multiple trips were made yearly between 2002 and 2007 to the Orff-Zentrum München, the archive of Carl Orff, the Bavarian Radio Corporation and the AOSA archives in New York. Keetman’s original typo-scripts for each episode found at the Orff Zentrum München form the basis for the data collection. These scripts by Keetman and Godela Orff, were examined, analyzed and translated and all existing broadcast tapes were viewed. The teaching sequence in the television programs matches Musik für Kinder and mimics the 1940s original Schulfunk radio broadcasts. The teaching sequence of pitches is in the key of C: G, E, A, C, D, F, H/B, B/Bb. With the exception of the final episode where the key of F was introduced, all music was in C. What sets Kinder Musizieren apart from the previous radio broadcasts? First, television allowed movement to be shown. Secondly, children played the instruments where previously adults played or recordings were used. Thirdly, children from Suse Böhm’s dance studio elevated the movement and drama aspects of the Orff-Schulwerk. The television broadcasts are important because they document the strong and strict teaching presence of Keetman.

Taylor, Donald M.; University of North Texas. dtaylor@music.unt.edu
“The Effect of Practice Context on Synchronization in Elementary Instrumental Performance.”

The purpose of this study was to examine children’s ability to synchronize the bass xylophone part of an Orff ensemble arrangement with recordings in three different conditions: (1) playing with a recording of an entire ensemble, (2) playing with a recording of the bass part alone, and (3) playing with a recording of metronome clicks to help students keep the beat. The study was conducted in a counterbalanced order using 33 participants (11 fourth-, 13 fifth-, and 7 sixth-grade students). Participants viewed 5 short instructional movies demonstrating xylophone technique, an ostinato pattern, and playing the ostinato in each performance condition. After watching each video, students were allowed to practice playing the bass xylophone. Student practice was recorded two times in each condition, the mean scores of which were used for analysis. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a statistically significant effect of condition, F(2, 64) = 3.36, p = .041, np2 = .10. Using partial eta squared as an effect size estimate, playing condition accounted for 10% of the variability in the dependent measure. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons using a Bonferroni adjustment revealed a statistically significant difference between the metronome condition and the bass only condition, p = .03. Comparisons between other conditions were not statistically significant.

Thornton, Linda; Pennsylvania State University. lct12@psu.edu
“Transfer Between General and Instrumental Classes: An Exploratory Study.”

Transfer is highly valued by teachers. Instruction is generally more effective and efficient if students are able to apply the knowledge used in one setting to another setting. However, understanding how transfer works, and how best to encourage transfer, remains an elusive topic within the research community. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine how a teacher who teaches the same fifth grade students in both general and instrumental music settings encourages transfer between the two classes. The data was collected over six months of observations and interviews with the teacher. Two main studies guided the analysis of the data. Strand (2003) developed and examined teaching techniques to encourage transfer among students while learning to compose. Woodford (1994) proposed a theory for music learning transfer that included the idea that transfer of learning can occur when mass musical beliefs are challenged and expertise is developed. For the purposes of this study, I translated his definitions of mass musical beliefs to apply only to the music learning in the general music class, and the expertise was developed in band lessons. I found the teacher exhibited all three teaching strategies developed by Strand (2003), even though the teacher had not been made aware of these techniques. Further, the data suggests that students see their band lessons as a separate endeavor from general music, and therefore do not build on their mass musical skills in the expertise setting.

Tutt, Kevin; Grand Valley State University. tuttk@gvsu.edu
“The Effect of Rehearsal Technique on Students’ Written Criteria for Evaluating Music.”

This study examined the effect of using musical terms in rehearsal on the ensemble members’ evaluation of selected compositions and their written criteria used in their evaluations. The subjects (N=45) for this study were college students enrolled for credit in an ensemble conducted by the researcher at a regional Mid-Western state university. The students were given parts to two marches which were then sight-read and evaluated by the subjects. The marches were then rehearsed over a six-week period. One march was rehearsed using musical terms and the other was rehearsed with non-musical terms. At the end of the six weeks, both marches were performed and then reevaluated by the students. Results indicated that the students’ use of musical terms to describe their criteria for evaluation increased but that the students’ preference for the march rehearsed using musical terms did not increase. Implications for further research are discussed.

VanWeelden, Kimberly, and Mason, Emily; Florida State University. kvanweelden@fsu.edu
“Children’s Ability to Identify Female Vocal Models’ Register Placement by Timbre and Use of Vibrato.”

The main purpose of the study was to determine whether children could discriminate and identify the head and chest voices of three female models of different voice types/timbres. This study also sought to determine if vibrato affected children’s ability to discriminate between the female vocal models’ head and chest voices. Frequency of correct responses indicated kindergarteners, first graders, and second graders generally identified head voice more so than chest voice while third grades generally identified more chest voice examples. However, all four grades correctly identified many head and chest voice examples with greater than 50% accuracy. All grades had a higher frequency of correctly identifying head voice examples without vibrato and kindergarten and 1st grade students correctly identified more chest voice examples with vibrato while 2nd and 3rd grade students correctly identified the same or more chest voice examples without vibrato. Further results are discussed within the paper.

Walls, Kimberly C.; Auburn University. kim.walls@auburn.edu
“Professional Development and Program Satisfaction of Music Teachers in a Graduate Distance Learning Program.”

Distance learning programs at the graduate level are becoming more common with several distance learning graduate degree programs in music education in existence. Program evaluation of distance learning is widely regarded as essential to the maintenance, improvement, and justification of programs, yet there are few, if any, published reports of the effectiveness of music education distance learning programs. Graduate programs for music educators should provide professional development. Transcript analysis of interviews of 16 recent graduates of a hybrid graduate music education program yielded four major themes related to professional development: satisfaction, teaching philosophy, teaching practice, and personal skills and attitudes. Quotations were coded according to theme and were analyzed to determine how and why the program may have affected each of the thematic areas. Two on-line surveys (one administered to current students and one administered to graduating students) and a review of related literature supported the themes’ importance to professional development. High levels of satisfaction among program graduates and important changes in teaching practices, philosophy, and personal skills (especially technology integration and skills) were indicated. The program goal of applicability to the “real world” of classroom music was achieved due to high levels of interaction among students, interaction between instructors and students, and certain interactive delivery technologies.

Watts, Sarah H. and Shehan Campbell, Patricia; University of Washington. shw4@u.washington.edu
“American Folk Songs for Children: Ruth Crawford Seeger’s Music-Educational Contributions.”

American composer Ruth Crawford Seeger grew into the role of music educator as a consummate musician with a deep interest in connecting children to their American musical heritage. The aim of this paper is to examine the contributions of Ruth Crawford Seeger to American music education, principally through an examination of primary and secondary sources and a content analysis of her published works. Her life in music as pianist, music intellectual, and composer notwithstanding, this review draws attention to her work in the selection, transcription, and placement of songs from the vast collections of the Lomax family into published works for use with children in schools. While historical in some of its methodological procedures, it is even more so a biographical study of a brilliant composer who was consumed with a passion to preserve and transmit American heritage music to children. Her brilliance as a composer notwithstanding, it is the legacy of Ruth Crawford Seeger as an educator that is examined here, with particular emphasis on the manner in which music of the people was masterfully transcribed from recordings and prepared for children and their teachers in schools and preschools.