2008 Research Poster Session III Abstracts – Part 1

2008 MENC National Conference Research Poster Session Abstracts

 

Research Poster Session IResearch Poster Session IIResearch Poster Session III
Part 1   •   Part 2Part 1   •   Part 2Part 1   •   Part 2

4:30 PM Research Poster Session III Click on the paper title to see the abstract. Highlight a specific abstract to select it, and then copy and paste it into a document. After selecting all abstracts you are interested in, you may print that document. This will allow you to only print the abstracts you are interested in. Abril, Carlos; Northwestern University. c-abril@northwestern.edu Gault, Brent, Indiana University. “A View of Secondary School Music Programs from the Eyes of Principals.” Bartolome, Sarah J. and Campbell, Patricia S.; University of Washington. sarahbartolome@hotmail.com “John Langstaff: Singer, Teacher, Reveler.” Bauer, William I.; Case Western Reserve University. william.bauer@case.edu Forsythe, Jere and Kinney, Daryl; Ohio State University. “In-service Music Teachers’ Perceptions of Professional Development.” Bazan, Dale E.; University of Nebraska-Lincoln. dbazan@unlnotes.unl.edu “Student-Directed Strategies Used by Teachers of Middle School Band.” Bowers, Judy; Florida State University. jbowers@fsu.edu Robinson, Nicole; University of Memphis. Holcomb, Jim, Memphis City Schools. “Systemic Change in an Urban Music Program: A University/Public School Model.” Bowers, Judy; Florida State University. jbowers@fsu.edu Daugherty, Jim; University of Kansas. “Self-Reported Student Vocal Use at a High School Summer Choral Camp.” Brittin, Ruth V.; University of the Pacific. rbrittin@uop.edu “Middle/High School Instrumentalists: Practice Strategies and Perceptions of Teachers’ Advice.” Burns, Carolyn; Montana State University-Bozeman. burnsclan77@hotmail.com “The Relevance of African American Singing Games to Xhosa Children in South Africa: A Qualitative Study.” Cassidy, Jane and Schlegel, Amanda; Lousiana State University. jcassid@lsu.edu “The Effect of Pitch and Tone Characteristics on Instrument Identification.” Chin, Christina S.; California State University, East Bay. christina.chin-newman@csueastbay.edu “How Talented Teenagers’ Musical Activities Can Improve Their Family Relationships.” Clair, Alicia A.; University of Kansas. aclair@ku.edu Hayden, Rebecca, and Johnson, Gary; Eastern Kansas VA Health Care System. “The Effect of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) on Physical Therapy.” Colwell, Cynthia M. and Williams, Robin; University of Kansas. Brees, Kristine; University of Kansas Medical Centre. “Impact of Music Therapy Interventions (Listening, Composition, Orff-Based) on the Physiological and Psychosocial Behaviors of Hospitalized Children.” Culig, Edna A. C.; University of Colorado-Boulder. edna.culig@colorado.edu “The Representation of Asia-Pacific Songs in American Elementary Music Textbooks (1944-1968).” Davis Cash, Carla; Texas Tech University. carla.d.cash@ttu.edu “Effects of Early and Late Rest Intervals on Performance and Consolidation of a Keyboard Sequence.” Dell, Charlene; University of Oklahoma. cdell@ou.edu “Beginning String Students’ Pitch Matching Abilities Using Single and Chord Comparison Tones.” Edwards, Jan; Ohio State University. edwards.689@osu.edu Ruffin, Milton; Fort Hayes High School. “ “Why Do I Stay in the Band?” Metropolitan School Ensemble Participants’ Perceptions of School Ensemble Culture.” Feay-Shaw, Sheila J.; University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. feayshas@uww.edu Lubinski, Lauren; Pioneer Elementary School. “Analysis of Popular Children’s Song Recordings for Appropriate Vocal Range.” Grashel, John; University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign. tsetseam@uiuc.edu “Graduate Music Education Faculty Members’ Graduate Degree Titles and Their Graduate Degree Institutions Teaching at Universities with Graduate Music Units Ranked by the National Research Council.” Gregory, Dianne and Belgrave, Melita; Florida State University. dgregory@fsu.edu “Transfer of Accompaniment Skills Across Guitar Competencies.” Guilbault, Denise; Rhode Island College. dguilbault@ric.edu “The Effect of Harmonic Accompaniment on the Tonal Improvisations of Students in First through Sixth Grade.” Hagen, Sara; Valley City State University. sara.hagen@vcsu.edu Benson, Cynthia; Bowling Green State University. Cremaschi, Alejandro, University of Colorado. “A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Different Types of Software Eye-Guides in the Development of Sight-Playing Skills in Piano Classes at the College Level.” Hancock, Carl; University of Alabama. chancock@bama.ua.edu “Estimates of Retention, Migration, and Attrition of Music Teachers.” McCord, Dawn Harmon; University of West Georgia. dmccord@westga.edu “Clinician Perspectives on the All-State Choral Event: An Overview of Clinician Experience and Suggestions for Improvement.” Howard, Sandra; University of Missouri-Kansas City.  SandraHoward@umkc.edu “Female Singers’ Attributed Social and Academic Motivational Factors for Participating in a High School District Level Honors Treble Choir.” Janzen, Elizabeth L.; University of Memphis. eljanzen@memphis.edu “The Effects of Music-Specific Training on Music Teachers’ Attitudes Regarding Special Learners in the Music Classroom.” Killian, Janice N.; Texas Tech University. Marilyn Kostka: Northern University Arizona;  Lynn Basinger: Garland Independent School District janice.killian@ttu.edu “The Effect of Modality on Expressive Performance among Experienced Musicians.” Koster, Keith A.; Christopher Newport University. keith.koster@cnu.edu Hammel, Alice; James Madison University and Christopher Newport University. “Student Perceptions of the All-State Process: A Preliminary Investigation.” Kuehne, Jane M.; Auburn University. kuehnjm@auburn.edu “A Survey of Sight-Singing Instructional Practices in Florida Middle School Choral Programs.” Lee, Youngae; University of Missouri-Columbia. ylnn8@mizzou.edu “Children’s Rhythmic Duplication Ability.” Legette, Roy; University of Georgia. rlegette@uga.edu “Causal Beliefs of Latino Public School Students about Success and Failure in Music.” Lewis, Barbara and Mortenson, Paul; University of North Dakota. barbara_lewis@und.nodak.edu “D. Ralph Appelman on Teaching, Research, and Artistic Performance.” Lien, Joelle L.; University of Utah. Joelle.Lien@music.utah.edu “Ethical Dilemmas of In-Service Music Educators.” Liu, Chang and Sims, Wendy L.; University of Missouri-Columbia. CL8F5@mizzou.edu “Sibling Relationships and Music Learning: A Preliminary Case Study.” Mason, Emily; Florida State University. ejm05d@garnet.acns.fsu.edu “Multicultural Music Represented in Current Elementary Music Textbooks: A Comparative Study of Two Published Music Series.” Matchael, Michael; University of Colorado-Boulder. michael.matchael@colorado.edu “An Oral History: Warner Imig, Dean of the College of Music at the University of Colorado at Boulder 1951-1978.”


Abril, Carlos; Northwestern University. c-abril@northwestern.edu Gault, Brent, Indiana University. “A View of Secondary School Music Programs from the Eyes of Principals.” This study examined secondary school principals’ perceptions of the music curriculum. A survey was mailed to 1,000 secondary school principals throughout the United States, yielding a 54% response rate. The survey form was designed to answer the following questions: What is the profile of secondary music programs in the U.S.? What learning outcomes and broad educational goals do principals perceive are achieved through the study of music in school? To what degree do certain factors (e.g., standardized tests, budgets, parents) affect a given music program? Ninety-eight percent of respondents indicated that their schools offered music courses, yet only 34% required music. Overall, principals believed that their music programs were effective in helpings students reach musical, as well as broad education goals. Standardized tests and legislation were thought to have the most negative impact on music programs, whereas music teachers, parents, and students were found to be the most positive factors impacting music programs. Bartolome, Sarah J. and Campbell, Patricia S.; University of Washington. sarahbartolome@hotmail.com “John Langstaff: Singer, Teacher, Reveler.” John Langstaff fits within a select group of pathfinders in American music education who have shaped the profession’s service to schools and society with special attention to the traditional musical expressions of American folk. His life and works are worthy of study for the contributions he made as a singer who modeled the nuances of traditional genres and styles for school children, youth, and adult amateur musicians who shared his enthusiasm for traditional song, and for his attention to bringing energy, ideas, and support to community music-making. This biographical study will pay tribute to Langstaff’s contributions to issues that concern current practices of music educators in schools and, broadly conceived, in the community as well. Examination of his published works and recordings were balanced with attention to newspaper accounts and published interviews with him, his colleagues, and his students. Langstaff managed to collect and resurrect through performance not only the standard songs of Great Britain, but also Anglo- and African-American songs he heard in New England, the Appalachians, the American south and in urban communities up and down the eastern seaboard. The exuberance of John Langstaff, in his own singing of traditional songs on recordings and in the productions of the performance groups he named “The Revels”, are telling of the best of music education and the emergence of community music practice. Of equal significance is his initiation of a movement that quite literally “reveled” in, and was deeply committed to, the restoration of traditional music of a bygone era. Bauer, William I.; Case Western Reserve University. william.bauer@case.edu Forsythe, Jere and Kinney, Daryl; Ohio State University. “In-service Music Teachers’ Perceptions of Professional Development.” The purpose of this study was to describe [State] music teacher’s perceptions of professional development. In-service teachers (N = 783) completed an online survey that was used to collect data related to: (a) demographics, (b) graduate study as professional development, (c) the perceived value of types of non-degree professional development, (d) motivation for pursuing professional development, and (e) delivery systems for/approaches to professional development. The participants’ highest ranked reasons for pursuing a master’s degree were for personal satisfaction, to become a better teacher, and to earn a higher salary. Motivations for non-degree professional development were to become a better teacher, improve musicianship, and renew the teaching license. Professional music conferences were the most desirable professional development experience for these teachers, followed by music in-services in their school districts, and multiple-day summer workshops. The least desirable and valued approach for these teachers was non-music in-services. The professional development topics of most interest to the participants varied according to area of specialization. Significant differences in professional development topic preferences were also found between newer and more experienced teachers. Bazan, Dale E.; University of Nebraska-Lincoln. dbazan2@unlnotes.unl.edu “Student-Directed Strategies Used by Teachers of Middle School Band.” The purpose of this study was to describe the teaching and learning strategies demonstrated by middle school band teachers in Northeast Ohio who reported a student-directed teaching style. A sequential, quantitative first two-stage mixed methods design prioritizing quantitative data and statistical analyses, but also employing qualitative data collection methods in a second stage to enrich perspective and discussion on student-directed teaching and learning strategies was used. In the first stage, quantitative data was gathered using a researcher-designed demographic questionnaire and Gumm’s Music Teaching Style Inventory (MTSI) (2004b). These surveys were delivered online to 120 middle school band teachers in Northeast Ohio, with hard copies administered to two participants (N = 122). Forty-nine respondents returned completed surveys, representing a return rate of 40.2%. In Stage One, data were analyzed to determine participant teaching styles so that the most student-directed middle school band teachers could be identified and observed during Stage Two. Relationships and differences among selected demographics and MTSI scores were also analyzed, yielding several significant results. Stage One results also revealed that teacher-directed instruction was more prevalent than student-directed instruction; middle school band teachers in Northeast Ohio seemed to prioritize a more teacher-directed rehearsal. In the second stage of the study, three of the most student-directed band teachers were observed and videotaped during five rehearsals, and interviewed following observation. Based on the analysis of videotapes, observational field notes, interview transcripts, and interview notes, quantitative computations and qualitative descriptions of student-directed band teachers were possible. Bowers, Judy; Florida State University. jbowers@fsu.edu Robinson, Nicole; University of Memphis. Holcomb, Jim, Memphis City Schools. “Systemic Change in an Urban Music Program: A University/Public School Model.” The purpose of this paper was to develop and implement a collaborative model for making systemic, long term changes in the culture of middle school choral music programs in an urban school district. Collaborators were the district supervisor, a local university music education chair, and a choral consultant. Participants were district faculty (N=22) invited to join a three year professional development program that would provide retraining opportunities, equipment, and extensive new materials chosen to support research-based current practice. Teacher attitudes were surveyed to shape year one in-service training (pretest) and to observe teacher self-perceived growth (posttest). Most pre/post measures were positive, with only 3 negative responses of minimal size (.05, .05, .08). Areas of greatest gain reflected content receiving much focus during in-service training: : adequate music and materials, student assessment, basic musicianship (including vocabulary), changing voice knowledge, and student engagement. Bowers, Judy; Florida State University. jbowers@fsu.edu Daugherty, Jim; University of Kansas. “Self-Reported Student Vocal Use at a High School Summer Choral Camp.” The purpose of this study was to investigate self-reported vocal health of high school choral students electing to parti
cipate in a summer choral camp. Choral participants (N=148) were surveyed prior to beginning camp activities, and then surveyed at the end of the rather intense week of choral singing, to gauge any changes they might perceive in their voices. Amount of sleep was observed, with little change during camp week. Vocal problems, however, were reported significantly more after the intense week of singing than at the beginning. Twelve vocal health items were surveyed and six significantly increased after one week of intense singing: hoarseness, tiredness, dryness, throat pain when singing, straining to sing, and more effort needed to sing or talk. There were no significant differences between reported ability to sing loud/soft, high/low, throat clearing mannerisms, or taking appropriate care of the voice. The results indicate students lack knowledge of the voice and necessary care, since vocally they were significantly less healthy, but also believe they taking good care of their voices. Brittin, Ruth V.; University of the Pacific. rbrittin@uop.edu “Middle/High School Instrumentalists: Practice Strategies and Perceptions of Teachers’ Advice.” Middle and high school instrumentalists (n = 225), including wind, percussion and string players, were surveyed in a summer camp setting. Respondents indicated the extent to which they use 28 practice strategies on a three-point scale, representing “often, on occasion, or never”. Students also indicated whether their teacher highly advises each strategy or not. Behaviors included those previously surveyed with professional orchestra musicians. In comparing students’ and professionals’ most cited strategies, there were a number of similarities, including “Starting with slow tempo and gradually increasing speed”, “Practicing small patterns, gradually combining into larger sections”; and “Practicing pitch/rhythm patterns” as three of the top four responses. There was a marked difference in rankings and ratings of several strategies, including: Memorizing a part, practicing with metronome’s sound, practicing “end-to-beginning” ,practicing with a tuner’s visual display, and listening to recording of oneself. There were also some discrepancies between advice professionals’ reportedly give their students, and the strategies students perceive their teachers to give. Almost half of strategies showed a difference of at least ten percentage points between adult and student perceptions. Some of the most obvious advice anomalies include listening to recordings, memorizing, a short warm-up, and playing in front of others. Repetition was highly valued. There were modest, significant correlations (p<.05) between 1) number of students’ practice strategies and the number they report their teachers advise; as well as correlations between number of students’ strategies and 2) years of study , 3) minutes per practice session, and 4) practice sessions per week. Burns, Carolyn; Montana State University-Bozeman. burnsclan77@hotmail.com “The Relevance of African American Singing Games to Xhosa Children in South Africa: A Qualitative Study.” In post-apartheid South Africa there has been a strong emphasis on teaching traditional music in the schools. Previously the music was greatly influenced by Western European and English systems. New standards were developed in the Arts and Culture Curriculum 2005. The purpose of this study was to explore how children in South Africa could be taught African American singing games, their perception and preferences, and how these songs would meet the new standards. A qualitative study was conducted with 71 Xhosa children in grades five and six at Good Shepherd Primary School in Grahamstown, South Africa. The learners were introduced to three African American singing games of which they had no prior knowledge. The songs were taught in the South African traditional manner. Interviews were subsequently conducted with learners, teachers, and families. The results of the interviews reflected the learners’ song preferences, comparisons of African American singing games to traditional songs, and positive responses for inclusion in the South African Arts and Culture Curriculum 2005. The outcome of this study may provide South African teachers with materials to introduce African American folk music as an applicable source of multicultural music with African origins. The study suggests successful ways in which we teach multicultural music. Cassidy, Jane and Schlegel, Amanda; Lousiana State University. jcassid@lsu.edu “The Effect of Pitch and Tone Characteristics on Instrument Identification.” The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the initial attack of a tone within the context of experienced and novice performers on an instrument identification task. Non-music major participants (N = 112) listened to a CD consisting of 32 excerpts, each with a unique combination of four variables (performer experience, presence/ absence of initial attack, instrument, pitch). The task required that they identify the instrument (flute, clarinet, alto saxophone, trumpet) and performer experience (beginner, professional). Results include significant differences for all main effects (p < .05). Significant interactions indicate that (1) professional tones were more accurately identified when the pitch was B-flat than F on all instruments except alto saxophone yet the opposite was true for beginner sounds and (2) regardless of instrument or pitch, the articulated excerpt always resulted in more accurate responses than the non-articulated excerpt, however the difference was most pronounced on the trumpet excerpts. Chin, Christina S.; California State University, East Bay. christina.chin-newman@csueastbay.edu “How Talented Teenagers’ Musical Activities Can Improve Their Family Relationships.” Does being involved in music as an adolescent have a positive effect on family relationships? Yes, according to over half of the talented teenage musicians studied. Questionnaire data were collected from 97 high school students attending a selective, intensive summer music program. In this descriptive investigation into how musical involvement can be beneficial for teenagers’ family relationships, five themes were identified: increased intimacy, validation, shared interest, opportunity for involvement, and personal growth. Clair, Alicia A.; University of Kansas. aclair@ku.edu Hayden, Rebecca, and Johnson, Gary; Eastern Kansas VA Health Care System. “The Effect of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) on Physical Therapy.” Laboratory studies in neuroscience have demonstrated that RAS facilitates movements that are intrinsically biologically rhythmic, such as walking gait. These studies demonstrate rhythmic beats, whether produced by a metronome or another sound device, function as an external time cue to regulate motor output such as that involved in walking. There are few clinical studies of the effects of RAS on clinical rehabilitation outcomes for persons who have had a stroke. Furthermore, there is no research that examines the effects of delayed RAS interventions in which RAS is introduced at variable times across a series of traditional physical therapy treatment sessions. This study examined the effects of RAS on an array of clinical outcome measures and the effects of the RAS implementation point through a wait-listed control research design. 
Results in a sample of 15 subjects indicated RAS enhancement for physical therapy gait training. Improvements occurred in evidence-based, balance outcomes including one-limb stance and cadence. Colwell, Cynthia M. and Williams, Robin; University of Kansas. Brees, Kristine; University of Kansas Medical Centre. “Impact of Music Therapy Interventions (Listening, Composition, Orff-Based) on the Physiological and Psychosocial Behaviors of Hospitalized Children.” The purpose of this study was to compare three music ther
apy interventions on physiological and psychosocial behaviors of hospitalized children. A nurse measured heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation. Pain and anxiety were gathered through self-report. Researchers completed time sampling of eye contact, facial expression, verbal interaction, and participation. Patients participated in an individual session targeting either Orff-based music therapy, music composition using the computer, or music listening of an iPod. Each session had an overall theme, All About Me. Results indicated no clinically significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, or oxygen saturation although there was an increase in oxygen saturation for Orff-based. Pain and anxiety decreased significantly from pre- to posttest but not differentiated among conditions. Greatest decrease in pain was in the listening condition and the greatest decrease in anxiety was in Orff-based. Eye contact with the therapist was greatest in the Orff-based while Eye contact with materials was comparable between Orff-based and composition. Positive facial affect was greatest in Orff-based while negative affect was greatest in composition. Patient initiated verbal interactions were greatest in listening while patient responses to verbal interactions were greatest in Orff-based. On-task participation was high for all conditions, highest in Orff-based. Verbal and motor off-task behaviors were highest in the listening condition. The composition condition had the longest session duration of all three interventions. Culig, Edna A. C.; University of Colorado-Boulder. edna.culig@colorado.edu “The Representation of Asia-Pacific Songs in American Elementary Music Textbooks (1944-1968).” Music series books are indispensable resources that propel the plight of multicultural music education in the United States. This study examines the representation of Asia-Pacific (AP) songs in nine American elementary music textbooks published in 1944-1968: (1) The American Singer (2) New Music Horizons, (3) Birchard Music Series, (4) This is Music, (5) Making Music Your Own, (6) Growing with Music, (7) Exploring Music, (8) Music for Young Americans, and (9) The Magic of Music. These series books are used as primary sources; Secondary sources include books, articles, symposia papers and proceedings, thesis and dissertations. Using quanto-history techniques, it addresses the following questions: (1) what are some of the American elementary music textbooks published during the given period? (2) What are some of the AP songs contained in the books and from which countries do they originate? (3) How much is the representation of AP songs? (4) Based on percentiles, is there a pattern of representation during the given time period? (4) In what languages do the AP songs appear in the textbooks? Data are systematically organized and presented using tables and graphs. Findings show that AP songs in American elementary music textbooks during the period covered have a minimal representation of 2.08%, though it generally increased through the years. Out of 6,672 songs in the repertory of the nine series textbooks, only 139 originate from Asia-Pacific. Of the 15 countries covered, 8 are represented. Only 32 out of 139 songs have native lyrics. Davis Cash, Carla; Texas Tech University. carla.d.cash@ttu.edu “Effects of Early and Late Rest Intervals on Performance and Consolidation of a Keyboard Sequence.” The experiment was designed to study the extent to which 5-minute rest intervals placed early and late during practice influence motor sequence learning. 36 nonmusicians performed a 5-note sequence with their left (non-dominant) hand on a digital piano, repeating the sequence “as quickly and accurately as possible” during 12 30-second practice blocks alternating with 30-second pauses. One group (N = 12) rested for 5-minutes between Blocks 3 and 4 (Early Rest); another group (N = 12) between Blocks 9 and 10 (Late Rest); and a control group (N = 12) performed the 12 blocks without an extended rest interval. Following a night of sleep, all participants performed the sequence in 6 30-second blocks with a 5-minute rest interval between Blocks 3 and 4.
The introduction of extended rest in the early and late stages of practice significantly affected the rates of learning within and between sessions. Immediately following the 5-minute rest intervals, participants showed large gains in the number of correct key presses per block, but only following the early rest did participants continue to show large gains across the next two blocks of practice. Participants in the early rest group also showed the largest overnight gains between training and retest. These findings suggest that neurophysical processes that occur during 5-minute rest intervals enhance performance and that the temporal placement of rest in a training session affects subsequent motor sequence learning and the consolidation of procedural memories. Dell, Charlene; University of Oklahoma. cdell@ou.edu “Beginning String Students’ Pitch Matching Abilities Using Single and Chord Comparison Tones.” The purpose of this study was to determine if second year beginning string students match pitch better to a single source tone or one comprised of notes from the I, IV, and V chords of the G major Scale. The primary research question was: Will there be a difference in the intonation performance deviation of students tuning to single tones vs. chord tones?
Subjects (N=47) were seventh grade beginning string students in their second year of string study from 2 middle school classes of a school district in central Oklahoma. Students were randomly assigned to either the chord tones matching source or the single tone matching source. Each student was asked to listen to the source tone, join the source, and adjust their finger in order to match pitch with the source tones. Student performances were recorded directly to CD.
Intonation Deviation Performance Scores served as the dependant variable. Each students’ deviation from the source frequency for each note was found in absolute value, and summed as their Intonation Deviation Performance score. An independent samples t-test was used to investigate differences in intonation performance skills among those matching to single or chord source tones. No significant effect was found for matching source p=.78. Edwards, Jan; Ohio State University. edwards.689@osu.edu Ruffin, Milton; Fort Hayes High School. “ “Why Do I Stay in the Band?” Metropolitan School Ensemble Participants’ Perceptions of School Ensemble Culture.” The study examined high school band members’ (N=158) perceptions of the school ensemble culture and community building in the school ensemble. The respondents were from high schools situated in a large metropolitan school district in the Midwest. A researcher-designed questionnaire asked the respondents to circle the response that best described their social, academic, and music behaviors. Some of the items required the respondent to indicate how much he or she agreed with a statement. To determine the respondents’ perceptions of “community-building” among band members, the questionnaire included items to examine the respondents’ study and social habits with other band members. The questionnaire also included items concerning band members’ support for other ensemble members. Two open-ended questions asked the respondents to tell why they decided to join the band and why they decided to stay in the ensemble. The results of the study revealed the band members stayed in the ensemble for a variety of reasons including the friendship and support they felt from other band members. Feay-Shaw, Sheila J.; University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. feayshas@uww.edu Lubinski, Lauren; Pioneer Elementary School. “Analysis of Popular Children’s Song Recordings for Appropriate Vocal Range.” Teachers of young children support children’s natural desire for singing by using commercial recordings
to provide opportunities for children to sing throughout the school day. It is unknown whether popular and folk recording artists consider children’s vocal development when preparing commercial recordings. This study investigated the vocal range of sixteen popular children’s recordings to determine if they have been recorded in the appropriate range for children or rather for the adult recording artist. Analysis of range and tessitura demonstrated that while each recording included some songs in appropriate range, many of the pieces include a range far lower than preschool and early elementary children should be singing. Grashel, John; University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign. tsetseam@uiuc.edu “Graduate Music Education Faculty Members’ Graduate Degree Titles and Their Graduate Degree Institutions Teaching at Universities with Graduate Music Units Ranked by the National Research Council.” Individuals seeking a doctoral degree in music education consider a host of factors as they decide on the institution they will attend. The purpose of this study was to determine the university where a faculty member teaching at the institution earned the terminal degree, the type of that degree, and the kinds of graduate degrees offered by the institution at universities appearing on the National Research Council’s Graduate School Rankings for Music (1994). Data to address these purposes were collected via the College Music Society’s Directory of Music Faculties in Colleges and Universities and university web sites. Gregory, Dianne and Belgrave, Melita; Florida State University. dgregory@fsu.edu “Transfer of Accompaniment Skills Across Guitar Competencies.” Videotaped performances of the end-of-the-semester evaluation of 30 music therapy and music education majors enrolled in different sections of a beginning guitar course were analyzed and compared. Instructors randomly assigned the name of a key for playing the primary chords from memory, a randomly selected unfamiliar song for harmonic accompaniment sight reading, and two songs for accompanying group singing from the student’s self-selected repertoire lists. A rating scale was devised to provide separate scores across 4 skills – eye contact (i.e., not looking at hands), sound quality, chording accuracy, and rhythmic accuracy — common to the 4 performance tasks. A global effectiveness rating, an index to the guitarist’s level of expertise for professional applications in music therapy and music education, was an additional rating for each of the 2 song accompaniments. Pearson correlations of total scores for each task indicate significant high positive correlations between the tasks. Effective accompanists’ mean skill ratings were higher for all competencies compared to ineffective accompanists’ ratings. During the transfer key/chord task, the rhythmic accuracy scores of effective accompanists were significantly higher (indicating fewer hesitations), compared to ineffective accompanists. During the transfer sight-reading task, the eye contact scores of effective accompanists were significantly higher (indicating rare, if any eye contact with the hand to form and change chords) compared to ratings of ineffective accompanists. Results document the identification of specific skills that differentiate effective from ineffective accompanists during song accompaniment and transfer tasks. Instructional implications are discussed. Guilbault, Denise; Rhode Island College. dguilbault@ric.edu “The Effect of Harmonic Accompaniment on the Tonal Improvisations of Students in First through Sixth Grade.” The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of root melody accompaniment on the tonal improvisations of elementary students. The specific problems of this study were (1) to determine if the addition of a root melody accompaniment to song instruction affects the implied harmonic functions and harmonic rhythm of the improvisations of students in first through sixth grade, and (2) to determine whether age affects the tonal improvisation scores of students in first through sixth grade. Results indicated no significant interactions. However, there was a statistically significant difference for the main effect of treatment. Students in the experimental group received significantly higher improvisation ratings than students in the control group. No significant difference was found for tonal improvisation scores between the various age groups. Hagen, Sara; Valley City State University. sara.hagen@vcsu.edu Benson, Cynthia; Bowling Green State University. Cremaschi, Alejandro, University of Colorado. “A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Different Types of Software Eye-Guides in the Development of Sight-Playing Skills in Piano Classes at the College Level.” This study is a follow-up to a pilot study comparing types of eye guides typically found in computer software on student sight-reading performance achievement and eye-guide preference. Participants in our first study (in press) sight-read pieces directly from the computer screen, using a computer program that featured a different eye guide in each treatment which consisted of two fifteen-minute practice sessions each. The eye-guide programs used were: Flash animations (note-by-note guide), Home Concert Xtreme (highlighted the whole measure) and Finale Performance Assessment (sweeping thin bar). The purpose of this study was to compare the use of the same three types of eye-guides on sight-reading performance achievement, but with each participant practicing sight-reading using only one type of eye guide and over a longer period of time. 
Four randomly selected groups of second semester students from three universities (N=73) participated in the study over a nine-week period. Participants in three groups practiced sight-reading pieces directly from a computer screen using a computer program that featured a different eye guide (as described above) for each group. A control group practiced sight-reading using a hard copy of the score. A handout guided participants in each group through the preparation and performance of sight-reading. Participants took sight-reading pre-, mid- and post-tests that were recorded with a MIDI sequencer and later evaluated on note and rhythm accuracy by two judges. Prior to the study, participants completed an initial survey regarding their sight-reading skills and use of computer software. At the end of the study, participants completed an exit survey that included questions regarding their software preferences and responses to using the eye guide. Data collection is complete. Results are now being examined and will be ready for dissemination by January 2008. Hancock, Carl; University of Alabama. chancock@bama.ua.edu “Estimates of Retention, Migration, and Attrition of Music Teachers.” Estimates of the number of music teachers who leave the profession, move among schools, and remain in their positions are scarce. In light of reported national teacher shortages and increasing numbers of teaching positions assumed by emergency or alternatively certified teachers, it seems important that a national estimate be compiled to provide a longitudinal picture of the state of the profession. The purpose of this study was to examine multiyear data sets provided by the National Center for Education Statistics in order to construct a national estimate of the attrition, migration, and retention of public school music teachers in the United States. Data from the 1988-89, 1991-92, 1994-95 and 2000-01 Teacher Followup Surveys were analyzed and rates of attrition for several cross sectional samples of music teachers and non music teachers were compared. Results indicate that the rate of retention, migration, and attrition for music teachers was statistically identical to estimates for teachers in general. Suggesting that efforts by administrators and policy makers need to address teacher demand, attrition, and retention concerns tha
t include music teachers. Mean estimates for music teachers indicate that approximately 84.3% are annually retained by public schools, 9.6% leave to teach at a different school, and 6.1% leave the profession altogether. A comparison of retention rates between music and other fine arts teachers revealed that the percentage of music teachers who are retained year-to-year was significantly higher then for other teachers in the arts. McCord, Dawn Harmon; University of West Georgia. dmccord@westga.edu “Clinician Perspectives on the All-State Choral Event: An Overview of Clinician Experience and Suggestions for Improvement.” All-state choral events have earned a central place in the choral curriculum of schools in the twenty-first century. The practices employed in carrying out the event vary from state to state and help to make the all-state process an ever-evolving tradition. Many students that go on to music studies in higher education were greatly influenced by the all-state experience. The exemplary all-state clinician stands at the center of this continued success. Studies have been pursued that describe the qualities found in the ideal choral director and research has begun on what makes the choral all-state event successful. This research has failed to use the perceptions of the clinicians in assessing the policies and practices used throughout the United States of America. Conductors stressed the importance of the all-state experience in both the education of the student and the overall contribution to the students’ musical skills. Much can be gleaned from the wisdom and talent of the all-state clinician whose experience perceives the parameters that are crucial to the success of the all-state event. This paper looks at what works, according to successful choral directors, and what can be done to improve the all-state phenomenon hailed by students, school choral directors, school administrators, parents, and college admissions as a mark of musical achievement in education. Research-based suggestions for the revision of all-state procedures will be presented and explored with proposals that can work to keep the event effective as well as efficacious. Howard, Sandra; University of Missouri-Kansas City. SandraHoward@umkc.edu “Female Singers’ Attributed Social and Academic Motivational Factors for Participating in a High School District Level Honors Treble Choir.” The purpose of this study was to examine female singers’ attributions of social versus academic motivation to participate in an auditioned, district level, high school honors treble choir in the Northeast region of the United States. Subjects (N = 68) were divided by grade level, Group 1: grade 9 (n = 27) and Group 2: grade 11 (n = 41). Each group was asked to respond to 11 statements categorized as social- or academic motivation using a numbered scale and one writing prompt. Research findings indicated a significant difference (p = .05) between the level of responses on social and academic motivation statements from the overall sample (N = 68) with a higher level of attribution to academic factors. Janzen, Elizabeth L.; University of Memphis. eljanzen@memphis.edu “The Effects of Music-Specific Training on Music Teachers’ Attitudes Regarding Special Learners in the Music Classroom.” Research indicates that teachers who demonstrate strong teaching techniques are effective in any environment: both with and without special learners. Despite these findings, many music teachers may not feel prepared to work with special learners, resulting in a lack of willingness or negative attitudes toward inclusion (Gregory, 1997; Hammel, 2001; Jellison & Duke, 1994). Colwell & Thompson (2000) found that while many music teacher training programs require classes in special education, very few require music-specific training for teaching special learners. It is therefore plausible that negative attitudes may be a result of limited music-specific training and experiences with special learners. This study investigated the effects of music-specific training on music teachers’ (N=25) attitudes and perceptions of special learners in the music classroom. Results indicated that while attitudes improved, willingness to teach special learners did not improve significantly. Killian, Janice N.; Texas Tech University. Marilyn Kostka: Northern University Arizona;  Lynn Basinger: Garland Independent School District janice.killian@ttu.edu “The Effect of Modality on Expressive Performance among Experienced Musicians.” This study examined the expressive factors used by experienced musicians when performing minor or major selections, given no written notational cues. Participants included music majors (N=40) from two universities who were shown two short selections, identical except for modality, and were told to play them as &sup3;expressively as possible.&sup2; Participants played on primary instruments or secondary instruments (piano). Major/minor presentations were counterbalanced for possible order effects. After recording their performances, participants listed two adjectives describing the selections. Performances were analyzed using Adobe Audition software that allows measurement of length of selection in seconds (tempo) and amplitude range in decibels (dynamics). Analyses revealed: 1. Overall, minor selections were performed with significantly wider dynamic ranges. Solo performers and those performing on primary instruments exhibited significantly wider dynamic ranges within individual minor selections than major selections. 2. Overall, individuals performed minor selections significantly slower than major selections. However, although minor selections played on primary instruments and chordal instruments were slower than their analogous major selections, differences were not large enough to be statistically significant. 3. Music majors selected substantially more descriptive (metaphorical) than technical (musical) adjectives. Adjectives were remarkably similar to those of young children with the happy/sad dichotomy appearing frequently in reference to major/minor. 4. There were no significant differences in participants&sup1; individual choices of their &sup3;most expressive performance&sup2; based on either selection modality or performance order. Koster, Keith A.; Christopher Newport University. keith.koster@cnu.edu Hammel, Alice; James Madison University and Christopher Newport University. “Student Perceptions of the All-State Process: A Preliminary Investigation.” Two sets of participants (N = 146), one, high school students auditioning for membership in all-state instrumental ensembles (PSE) and two, high school all-state instrumental ensemble members (ASE) completed a questionnaire that solicited their perceptions regarding six aspects of the all-state process: Role of School Music Teacher, Role of Applied or Private Music Teacher, Preparation for All-State, Value of All-State Membership, Apprehensiveness, and Aspirations Beyond All-State. Results indicated some response differences although more ASE participants were more likely to be enrolled in private lessons, felt prepared for the all-state audition, thought that making all-state was important, were more likely to be upset if they didn’t make all-state, were less nervous about the audition, and less likely to consider majoring in music education upon entering college. PSE participants were less likely to take private lessons on the instrument with which they were auditioning, yet felt prepared for the all-state audition. Also, membership in an all-state membership was less important to the PSE participants. In addition, PSE participants were more likely to be interested in representing their school, believed that being a member of an all-state ensemble was important to their school, and wanted to make their school music teacher proud by becoming a member of an all-state ensemble than those participants who were ultimately
selected for such an ensemble. Both sets of participants responded similarly about feeling pressure from their parents about membership in an all-state instrumental ensemble. Kuehne, Jane M.; Auburn University. kuehnjm@auburn.edu “A Survey of Sight-Singing Instructional Practices in Florida Middle School Choral Programs.” The purpose of this research was to discover materials and methods used, and examine influences on how and why sight-singing is taught in Florida middle school choral programs. Members of the Florida Vocal Association completed an online or paper version of a questionnaire (N = 152). Data yielded several results that support previous research and provide an in depth look at respondents’ instructional practices and techniques. Additional research must be conducted to make more specific conclusions about the teaching of sight-singing in the middle grades. Lee, Youngae; University of Missouri-Columbia. ylnn8@mizzou.edu “Children’s Rhythmic Duplication Ability.” The study was designed to examine children’s ability with rhythmic duplication and factors that contribute to children’s performance. Participants (N = 32) were children 6 years old (n = 8), 5 years old (n = 8), 4 years old (n = 8), and 3 years old (n = 8) from a Korean community in a small mid-western city. Each child was tested by individually duplicating 10 kinds of rhythmic patterns by tapping and chanting. Their parents were interviewed. Age level was a significant predictor of children’s rhythmic development. Children at all age levels could duplicate the rhythmic patterns better by chanting than by tapping. The response mode of the age 3 and age 4 groups did not significantly differ from each other; the same was found for the age 5 and age 6 groups. However, there were significant differences between the age 4 and age 5 groups. An informal observation based on parent interviews indicated that cognitive development, weekly musical exposure time, and family involvement may be variables that need further study. Legette, Roy; University of Georgia. rlegette@uga.edu “Causal Beliefs of Latino Public School Students about Success and Failure in Music.” Elementary and middle school Latino students (N=226) enrolled in music classes in the public schools were administered the Asmus Music Attribution Orientation Scale (MAOS) and asked to indicate those causes which they attributed most to succeeding or failing in music. Collectively, student mean responses were higher for ability and effort causal attributions. Causal attributions differed significantly by school level but not by gender. Implications for teaching are discussed. Lewis, Barbara and Mortenson, Paul; University of North Dakota. barbara_lewis@und.nodak.edu “D. Ralph Appelman on Teaching, Research, and Artistic Performance.” Dudley Ralph Appelman’s (1908 -1993) contributions to voice science and vocal pedagogy have been extensive and are applicable to all those who work with voices (i.e., choral directors and voice teachers). Additionally, his ideas about the nature of teaching relate to anyone in the teaching profession. He was one of the first voice scientists in the United States who incorporated voice science into the teaching of voice. Unlike voice scientists who were just doing research without showing the implications of the findings for teaching, Appelman did research but went one step further by explaining how the results could be applied to the teaching of singing. He believed that teachers of singing and voice scientists should also be singers, not just scholars who had a knowledge of singing. Appelman’s influence continues even after his death. The following are some of his most important recommendations. 1) Voice teachers should be conversant with the voice science literature and use this knowledge when teaching using a psychological method. 2) Voice teachers should search for their own answers to pedagogical problems by doing research. 3) An important aspect of an artistic performance is the intelligibility of the text. 4) Teach a phonetic system based upon Appelman’s vowel migration chart. 5) Teach students how to balance inhalation and expiration (appoggio) by means of drills involving pulsation. 6) Address the register breaks with exercises crossing the register and covering with males and with the messa di voce for females. Lien, Joelle L.; University of Utah. Joelle.Lien@music.utah.edu “Ethical Dilemmas of In-Service Music Educators.” This study, which is a modified replication of an extant APA study of practicing psychologists, is one of the first descriptive studies of applied ethics specific to the profession of music education. Music educators in two Midwestern states (N = 3735) were asked to “describe in a few words, or in more detail, an incident that you or a colleague have faced in the past few years that was ethically challenging or troubling to you.” Responses from 516 music educators described 550 critical incidents of dilemmas in five categories: (a) pedagogy, (b) enforcement of laws and policies, (c) resource allocation, (d) relationships, and (e) diversity. The results of this study may be useful in bringing discussions of applied ethics into undergraduate teacher preparation programs and professional in-service education, and toward the possible development of a professional code of ethics that addresses the day-to-day work of music education practitioners. Liu, Chang and Sims, Wendy L.; University of Missouri-Columbia. CL8F5@mizzou.edu “Sibling Relationships and Music Learning: A Preliminary Case Study.” There has been a considerable amount of music education research on the effects of family members on music learning. The focus of these studies has been on the parent-child dyads; however, there is a lack of data regarding how sibling relationships influence music learning within the family context. Thus, the goal of this research was to provide a preliminary investigation of interactions between siblings with respect to music learning. For this case study, data on siblings’ musical relationships were collected from one family including three girls, their mother and father. The girls all studied music and had received awards for their performances and compositions. The family responded through (a) written questionnaires completed by the parents and each of the three siblings, (b) separate interviews with the parents and each sibling. All interviews were videotaped, transcribed and coded by the members of this research team. Results indicated that there may be benefits in music learning derived from the musical interactions among siblings. And that birth order may have an effect on individual differences in music learning. The findings also provided insights into competition as a stimulus and source of encouragement between siblings in music learning. Further research into the nature and development of sibling relationships in music learning may help music educators gain insights about these potentially important informal influences on music study, which take place outside of, yet may have an impact on, the formal music study that takes place in classrooms and studios. Mason, Emily; Florida State University. ejm05d@garnet.acns.fsu.edu “Multicultural Music Represented in Current Elementary Music Textbooks: A Comparative Study of Two Published Music Series.” Elementary music textbook series have been part of music education for many years. Teachers in the elementary music classroom often use these textbooks as a resource for varied song repertoire and activities to compliment their instruction. Research investigating textbook series is limited and has primarily focused on series no longer in publication, two grade levels and/or limited cultures. The purpose of this study was to examine what countries are and have been represented in current music textbook series? Additional questions in the study pertain to frequency an
d distribution of songs across grade levels. Two different elementary music textbook publishers were used for K – 5th grade; Music Connection (1995) and Making Music (2002 & 2005) by Silver Burdett Ginn, and Share the Music (1995 & 2003) and Spotlight On Music (2006) by Macmillan McGraw-Hill. Total songs appearing in the Macmillan McGraw-Hill series was 3,665 with 100 countries represented across the curriculum. The Silver Burdett Ginn textbook series contained a total of 4,000 songs from107 countries. Further results and discussions are included. Matchael, Michael; University of Colorado-Boulder. michael.matchael@colorado.edu “An Oral History: Warner Imig, Dean of the College of Music at the University of Colorado at Boulder 1951-1978.” The preservation of the history of a prominent figure in ( ) music education is the primary purpose of this study. This report will examine the administration of Warner Imig, Dean of the College of Music at the University of ( ) (1951-1978) through an investigation into his accomplishments, challenges, sphere of influence through various national leadership positions, contributions to the profession of music education, and a glimpse of him as a person. Oral history techniques were used to collect data and enhance primary and secondary sources. Data was gathered from archival annual reports written by Dean Imig as well as an oral interview with Robert Fink, Imig’s successor, an oral interview with Imig himself given to Boyce Sher, (archived by the Maria Rogers Oral History Program in ( ), ( )) and several records and documents on file at the College of Music. Findings indicate Warner Imig had significant impact on the development and expansion of the music program at the University of ( ). Additionally he had influence at the state, national, and international levels in areas such as choral music and music education. Further research is needed to understand all aspects of Imig’s administration. Primarily, more interviews with his contemporaries could yield a balanced view of the effects of his leadership and administration. Implications of this study are embodied in the preservation techniques employed to preserve the legacy of an important music educator and administrator at the University of ( ).