2010 Research Poster Session Abstracts

2010 Biennial Music Educators National Conference Research Poster Session Abstracts

 


Research Poster Session IResearch Poster Session IIResearch Poster Session III
Part 1   •   Part 2Part 1   •   Part 2Part 1   •   Part 2


10:15 AM – 11:45 AM
Research Poster Session I

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Alexander, Michael; Assoc. Baylor University. Michael_L_Alexander@Baylor.edu
“The Effect of Stimulus Timbre and Distance.”

Allen, Tanya; Florida State University. ttrenee25@yahoo.com
“Occupational Perceptions of Undergraduate Music Majors.”

Andrews, Adrianna; University of Florida. atandrews53@ufl.edu
“Music Instruction:Benjamin Franklin High School 1957-2009 – An Oral History.”

Beitler, Nancy S.; The Pennsylvania State University. nsb132@psu.edu
“Creativity in the Middle School Instrumental Setting: Music Educators’ Use of Improvisation and Composition.”

Brittin, Ruth V.; University of the Pacific. rbrittin@pacific.edu
Wolfe, David
“Brundibar: A Catalyst for Engaging 4th-8th Grade Students and Teachers in Opera.”

Buonviri, Nathan O.; Boyer College of Music and Dance, Temple University. nathan.buonviri@temple.edu
“Relationships Between Visual Imagery and Melodic Dictation Success.”

Burrack, Frederick; Kansas State University. fburrack@ksu.edu
Bazan, Dale; University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
“Music Teacher Qualifications and Perceived Professional Development Needs in Midwestern States.”

Cooper, Shelly; University of Arizona. sccooper@email.arizona.edu
Hamann,Donald; University of Arizona.
“Perceived Articulation Uniformity Among Trumpet and Violin Performances.”

Courtney, Scott; University of Hawaii at Manoa. scourtney@hawaii.rr.com
“Director’s Perceptions of Students with ADHD.”

Diaz, Frank M.; Florida State University. fmd07@fsu.edu
“The Effect of Attack Consonants on Perception of Intensity in Brass Instrument Onsets.”

Fredrickson, William E.; The Florida State University. wfredrickson@fsu.edu
Gavin, Russell; The Florida State University.
Moore, Christopher; The Florida State University.
“Attitudes of Select Music Performance Faculty toward Students Teaching Private Lessons after Graduation: A Pilot Study.”

Furby, Victoria J.; SUNY-Buffalo State College. furbyvj@buffalostate.edu
“The Effects Of Learning Beginning Music Theory On The Sight-Singing Skill Of High School Students.”

Gavin, Russell B.; Florida State University. russeuph@gmail.com
“Undergraduate Music Education Students’ Perceptions of Curriculum.”

Gibbs, Beth; Grand Valley State Unversity. gibbsb@gvsu.edu
“Experienced Elementary Music Teacher’s Perceptions of Effective Classroom Interactions.”

Hackworth, Rhonda S.; Mason Gross School of the Arts. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. rshackwo@rci.rutgers.edu
“Prevalence of Vocal Problems: Speech-Language Pathologists’ Evaluation of Music Teacher and Non-Music Teacher Recordings.”

Hash, Phillip M.; Calvin College. pmh3@calvin.edu
“The Universal Teacher by J. E. Maddy and T. P. Giddings (1923).”

Hedden, Steven K.; University of Kansas. hedden@ku.edu
“Trends in Statistical Techniques in Music Education Research as Shown in Three Subsets of JRME Articles.”

Howe, Sondra Wieland; Independent Scholar. howex009@umn.edu
“Women Supervisors of Music in the Public Schools, 1900-1950.”

Killian, Janice N.; Texas Tech University. janice.killian@ttu.edu
Dye, Keith G.; Texas Tech University.
“Student Teachers Reflect: Perspectives on a Learner-Centered Model of Music Teacher Preparation.”

 


 

Alexander, Michael; Assoc. Baylor University. Michael_L_Alexander@Baylor.edu
“The Effect of Stimulus Timbre and Distance.”

High school string orchestra students (N = 139) were measured on their ability to tune their instruments’ open “A” strings in response to either a pure tone stimulus or a complex tone stimulus within a classroom setting. Alpha was set at .05. ANOVA was used to discover any significant differences between groups in a 2 x 3 factorial design (stimulus x distance). The dependent variable was individual tuning.
No significant difference was found between the two stimuli independently or as an interaction with distance. However, a significant difference was found between groups on the variable of distance alone; those participants closest to either stimulus tuned significantly more accurately than those at farther distances. An examination of the means of each distance showed a gradual decline in individual tuning accuracy at each consecutive distance from the stimuli.

Allen, Tanya; Florida State University. ttrenee25@yahoo.com
“Occupational Perceptions of Undergraduate Music Majors.”

Fifty-one (N=51) undergraduate music majors were asked to choose one of four models who they perceived best representative of thirteen music and non-music occupations. The four models for each occupation consisted of a Black female, a White female, a Black male, and a White male. The results revealed that music majors did perceive a specific race and gender model to be best representative of most occupations; however the race and gender of the participants were not major factors in their model selection. The male models were chosen most frequently for music history professor, jazz ensemble instructor, and symphonic band director. Females dominated the participant’s choice for college voice instructor.

Andrews, Adrianna; University of Florida. atandrews53@ufl.edu
“Music Instruction:Benjamin Franklin High School 1957-2009 – An Oral History.”

The purpose of conducting an oral history on Benjamin Franklin High School was to examine the reasons why this particular academic setting achieved consistent musical and academic excellence. Through creating a systematic collection of evidence, understanding how Benjamin Franklin High School had thrived within the failing school system of Orleans Parish, Louisiana for the past 50 years was discovered and interpreted. The proposed research questions; what makes Benjamin Franklin High School successful and unique, and has the musical instruction at Benjamin Franklin influenced exceptional musicianship, were posed to 16 teachers, musicians, alumni, and administrators.
With focus on the music instruction, a record of music directors, curricula, and participants provided insight into the mission of the music program, which included community involvement, supplementary music instruction, and underlying motivational factors. The oral history was divided into themed sections;1960s-Emergence of the music program and equality, 1970s-Legacy of Peter Dombourian, 1980s-Building a Reputation for Music Instruction, 1990’s-Peter Dombourian, William Love, and Carl LaCoste, 2000s-The Separation, 2005-Hurricane Katrina’s effects on Music Instruction at Benjamin Franklin, Rebuilding Music Instruction- Post Hurricane Katrina, and Music Instruction Modifications: Post- Hurricane Katrina.

Beitler, Nancy S.; The Pennsylvania State University. nsb132@psu.edu
“Creativity in the Middle School Instrumental Setting: Music Educators’ Use of Improvisation and Composition.”

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the use of creative activities and the educators’ personal experience with these activities. Specifically: 1) What is the relationship between educators’ use of creative activities – improvisation and composition – in the middle school instrumental setting and their personal experience with these activities? 2) What kinds of creative activities are used by these educators?
Music educators (N=150) were selected through systematic sampling from the 501 public school districts in Pennsylvania. An invitational letter providing an electronic link to an on-line questionnaire was sent resulting in 30 respondents. The on-line questionnaire of 26 questions provided data in each of the following categories: 1) teaching environment, 2) use of improvisation and composition, 3) specific creative activities and 4) educators’ personal experience with improvisation and composition.
When asked about the amount of time their students improvise, 50% of the teachers reported their students sometimes improvise while 38% rarely to never. Composition received less time; 69% report rarely to never and 27% sometimes. A statistically significant (ñ = .01) moderately high positive relationship (r = .60) was found between the two variables – educators’ use and their personal experience with creative activities.
It was concluded that music educators who have personal experience in creative activities frequently offer these creative activities to their students; however, more frequent use of creative activities by all instrumental music educators, especially composition, needs to be encouraged.

Brittin, Ruth V.; University of the Pacific. rbrittin@pacific.edu
Wolfe, David
“Brundibar: A Catalyst for Engaging 4th-8th Grade Students and Teachers in Opera.”

This study explored the affective responses of 816 fourth – eighth grade students to in-school performances of the children’s opera Brundibar. The study also examined the different preview activities their teachers provided, particularly regarding perceived effectiveness. Three school sites participated, and responses showed consistent patterns across and within schools. For those completing pre- and post-opera surveys (n = 526), affective responses were consistently and significantly higher following the live performance. Teachers used certain instructional activities more than others, and generally those associated with media of some sort (reading the accompanying children’s book, watching a video, and listening to a cd) were believed to be most helpful. Results are discussed in regards to helping classroom teachers design effective activities that build musical knowledge even as they strengthen skills in history, social studies, reading, and the visual and dramatic arts.
This opera was found to be particularly relevant in that it enabled instructional activities that tapped into history of the Holocaust, anti-bullying messages, visual and dramatic arts standards, and literacy development. Because the opera and children’s book are associated with respected artists Maurice Sendak and Tony Kushner, classroom teachers were particularly interested in participating in the project. The project was productive in reaching under-served student populations and in exposing performance, theatre, and music business students/faculty to the creative opportunities and challenges of serving public school audiences.

Buonviri, Nathan O.; Boyer College of Music and Dance, Temple University. nathan.buonviri@temple.edu
“Relationships Between Visual Imagery and Melodic Dictation Success.”

The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of music notation visualization on melodic dictation scores of college freshmen. Participants were 50 first-year college music majors enrolled in 4 sections of Aural Skills I for 14 weeks. One section served as the experimental group and received 3 to 5 minutes per class meeting of guided instruction in visualizing notation during dictation training. The other 3 sections served as control groups and received standard dictation instruction. Results showed no significant differences (p > .05) among any groups on pre-posttest gain scores. Because the experimental group performed neither better nor worse than the control groups, results suggest that visualizing notation may be a viable melodic dictation strategy. Suggestions for further research include a longitudinal (multi-year) study of the effects of differentiated instruction in dictation strategies, and survey research exploring students’ and instructors’ dictation strategy preferences. Because formation of the requisite skills for dictation can begin early in a child’s musical development, music teachers at all levels may benefit from further understanding of how the mind processes the auditory and visual components of music.

Burrack, Frederick; Kansas State University. fburrack@ksu.edu
Bazan, Dale; University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
“Music Teacher Qualifications and Perceived Professional Development Needs in Midwestern States.”

Although it is common knowledge that current economic and political environments affect schools, it is not well known how the current conditions are directly impacting music education programs. In particular, the qualifications and professional development needs of music teachers in rural Midwest schools have not been assessed. As local school districts around the United States look at shrinking budgets and weigh program cuts, music educators and state music educators associations may need specific data as to the direct impact upon music education programs in their states.

It is essential for those involved in teacher preparation and professional development of practicing teachers to understand the most current needs of the profession and those who teach music so to succeed in developing a skilled and knowledgeable culture. This study describes a multi-state survey conducted to identify (1) the current challenges facing music teachers and music programs in schools, (2) the relationships between teacher qualifications and music program health reflecting the nature of cutbacks to music programs and its effects, (3) perceived professional development needs expressed by music teachers, (4) the learning modes that teachers expressed they most favored, and (5) a resulting model of professional development suitable to teachers in rural, remote areas.

Cooper, Shelly; University of Arizona. sccooper@email.arizona.edu
Hamann,Donald; University of Arizona.
“Perceived Articulation Uniformity Among Trumpet and Violin Performances.”

All directors strive for a unified sound throughout their ensemble, yet this goal may prove even more challenging for orchestra directors. A factor involved in uniformity of sound among winds and strings is articulation. The purpose of this baseline study was to determine whether a trumpet player could better match the articulation of a violin player, as perceived by participants listening to a recording of two performances, under the following two conditions: 1. when performing the same musical example with the same musical symbol indications as the violinist or 2. when directed to listen to the violin performance of the musical example and then match the articulation. In the case of detaché, spiccato, louré, and to some extent the slur and martelé the trumpeter’s modified syllable had a marked effect on the participants’ choice of the performance that best matched the violin. When articulations remain consistent among and between sections of an ensemble sound uniformity is enhanced. However, the musical score may not be the final conveyance of information musicians need to achieve articulation uniformity. Individuals need to be aware of the limitations of the musical score in terms of articulation uniformity and have the knowledge and skill to address this issue.

Courtney, Scott; University of Hawaii at Manoa. scourtney@hawaii.rr.com
“Director’s Perceptions of Students with ADHD.”

The purpose of this study was to examine high school band director’s perceptions of students with ADHD in high school instrumental ensembles, including marching band. A survey was sent to 85 high school band directors, with 31 respondents. Questions were asked regarding the ability of students with ADHD ability to master musical concepts in the concert band, musical and visual concepts on the marching field, as well as questions regarding the student’s ability of these students to match standard environmental expectations of the classroom. There was no significant difference among mean scores for how students followed procedures, responded to musical criteria, or displayed musical abilities. There were significant differences found in student behavior in the ensemble, as well as how students with ADHD responded to marching band concepts. Open-ended questions allowed participants to describe experiences and provide suggestions for helping others best serve students with ADHD in an instrumental ensemble setting.

Diaz, Frank M.; Florida State University. fmd07@fsu.edu
“The Effect of Attack Consonants on Perception of Intensity in Brass Instrument Onsets.”

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various attack consonants on perception of intensity in trombone onsets. Using two experiments, music majors (N=61) were asked to compare differences in attack intensity between randomized pairs of short trombone tones. For each experiment, tone pairs were organized in one of three conditions; increase, decrease, and no change between tones. In the first experiment, results indicated significant differences in intensity ratings between conditions of neutral to decrease and decrease to increase. In the second experiment, amplitude levels using the same stimuli were normalized so that differences between onsets were less than .5 decibels. Results indicated significant differences between neutral and decrease as well as decrease and increase conditions. For both experiments, results suggest that in general, instrumentalists correctly perceived direction of intensity differences between varying onset consonants, even when onset amplitude was normalized. Generalizations for other brass instruments are discussed along with possible rehearsal applications for instrumental conductors.

Fredrickson, William E.; The Florida State University. wfredrickson@fsu.edu
Gavin, Russell; The Florida State University.
Moore, Christopher; The Florida State University.
“Attitudes of Select Music Performance Faculty toward Students Teaching Private Lessons after Graduation: A Pilot Study.”

The present study was designed to pilot test an adjusted version of questionnaires used by Mills (2004) and Fredrickson (2007) with a select population of higher education professionals in music performance teaching. Full-time tenure track college music faculty with primary appointments in applied music were contacted for the project. Thirty-two of 51 completed the task with no negative comments about the format, focus or specific questions in the instrument. Results were similar in many ways to previous student responses, and this group felt strongly that they liked teaching, training for teaching is important, and that their applied lesson students would likely teach someday. They enjoyed talking about pedagogical issues with students and liked the challenges of teaching musicians. Future research with this instrument should focus on larger groups with delineations in specialty area, faculty appointment, and teaching assignment.

Furby, Victoria J.; SUNY-Buffalo State College. furbyvj@buffalostate.edu
“The Effects Of Learning Beginning Music Theory On The Sight-Singing Skill Of High School Students.”

Through an extensive review of the literature surrounding sight singing, it was hypothesized that knowledge of tonal harmonic function would improve students chances of sight singing success. This experiment was designed to teach two groups of high school students using differing methods of instruction. Both groups received traditional sight-singing instruction. The treatment group received additional instruction in beginning music theory. Students were randomly assigned to each group, performed a pretest, and received ten weeks of instruction, consisting of two twenty-minute lessons a week. At the conclusion of the instruction students performed a posttest.
After the experiment was concluded, evaluators listened to tapes of the students’ pretest and posttest performances and judged the number of pitches sung correctly. There was no significant difference between groups on either the pretest or the posttest. When the groups were combined, however, there was a significant difference between the pretest and posttest performances suggesting that consistent instruction improves sight-singing performance.

Gavin, Russell B.; Florida State University. russeuph@gmail.com
“Undergraduate Music Education Students’ Perceptions of Curriculum.”

The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate music education majors’ perceptions of the courses required to complete a bachelor’s degree in music education. Participants (N = 162) completed a survey in which they rated each course/course area in the curriculum on the importance of the course as it related/will relate to their becoming a music educator. The variables of grade level and gender were also examined in an attempt to discover any potential effects these variables may have on student perceptions. The student population was drawn from three separate universities. These institutions, primarily chosen for homogeneity of curricular requirements, provide some diversity of institutional location and size.
In examining the data, courses were grouped into the categories of: (1) general studies; (2) music focused courses; and (3) education focused courses. Students rated music focused courses as being the most important, followed by education focused courses and general studies. The courses “student teaching/internship” and “conducting” were given the highest overall ratings among the individual courses evaluated, while “science” and “math” received the lowest ratings. A MANOVA found the effect of gender to be significant in relation to students’ rankings of education focused courses, with females rating courses in this area higher than males. No significance was found for the effect of grade level, nor were any interactions uncovered. Results also indicated some effect of institution on the ratings of course importance.

Gibbs, Beth; Grand Valley State Unversity. gibbsb@gvsu.edu
“Experienced Elementary Music Teacher’s Perceptions of Effective Classroom Interactions.”

The purpose of this study was to examine how experienced elementary general music teachers perceived the effectiveness of their interactions with students in the music classroom. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase One, experienced elementary music teachers responded to a questionnaire regarding their perceptions of the frequency and effectiveness of actions taken to initiate and reinforce student music learning. Additionally, participants responded to questions regarding their feelings about and expectations for their music classes. In Phase Two, a sub-sample of three experienced elementary music teachers were each observed teaching one music class after which they were individually interviewed by the researcher to reflect on their classroom experiences.
Experienced music teachers’ responses to the questionnaire helped to create a profile of teacher perceptions about music learning interactions. Results indicated a preference for verbal interactions with students both when initiating instruction and when following through with reinforcement. Despite the musical context of class, teachers’ responses indicated that musical actions taken to initiate and reinforce music learning interactions were used less frequently and with less effectiveness than the other actions specified on the questionnaire.
Additionally, findings indicated that teachers felt positively about music classes and indicated that students frequently met their expectations for both musical achievement and behavior. Teachers perceived themselves as the most frequent initiators of both musical and non-musical interactions in class: a finding supported by observations and interviews of the three sub-sample participants.

Hackworth, Rhonda S.; Mason Gross School of the Arts. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. rshackwo@rci.rutgers.edu
“Prevalence of Vocal Problems: Speech-Language Pathologists’ Evaluation of Music Teacher and Non-Music Teacher Recordings.”

The current study, a preliminary examination of whether music teachers are more susceptible to vocal problems than teachers of other subjects, asked for expert evaluation of audio recordings from licensed speech-language pathologists. Participants (N=41) taught music (n=23) or another subject (n=18) in either elementary (n=21), middle (n=10), or high school (n=10), and had a mean of 14 years teaching experience. Each teacher read a poem while being audio recorded. Nine licensed speech-language pathologists with a mean of 20 years clinical experience served as expert evaluators by listening to the 41 recordings while manipulating the Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) dial. Results showed no significant differences between music and non-music teacher evaluations. The individual variations in scores showed no trends for any particular group, but rather pointed out how personal vocal hygiene (care of the voice) is for individual teachers. Suggestions for future research include ways to best help teachers manage individual vocal problems.

Hash, Phillip M.; Calvin College. pmh3@calvin.edu
“The Universal Teacher by J. E. Maddy and T. P. Giddings (1923).”

This study examined the Universal Teacher for Orchestra and Band Instruments (UT), a class method by Joseph E. Maddy and Thaddeus P. Giddings published by the Conn Musical Instrument Company in1923. Research questions focused on 1) details surrounding the writing and publishing of the UT, 2) philosophical, psychological, and pedagogical principles behind the method, 3) the influence of the UT on class teaching and subsequent books, and 4) implications of this research for modern practice.

Maddy and Giddings wrote the UT from 1920-1922 while teaching summer methods courses together at Chautauqua, New York, and the University of Southern California. The authors designed the book to appeal to children by applying the song method from elementary vocal music to instrumental instruction. This pedagogy differed from previous instrumental methods in that instructional material consisted entirely of melodies rather than scales and exercises. The UT also employed a detailed, systematic series of class procedures intended to maximize the use of class time, hold students accountable for their progress, and allow independent learning with as little teacher intervention as possible.

Hedden, Steven K.; University of Kansas. hedden@ku.edu
“Trends in Statistical Techniques in Music Education Research as Shown in Three Subsets of JRME Articles.”

Researchers over the last 25 years have reviewed studies published in the Journal of Research in Music Education in efforts to identify patterns and trends regarding the authors, editorial board, and subjects, and the citation rate. Other researchers have employed content analysis. Another group of studies has employed content analysis. Apparently no one has focused on the statistical techniques used in the published studies. The author contends that an examination of statistical treatments over time provides evidence which bears on the research sophistication of the music education research community, at least for those who publish data-based articles in the JRME. Accordingly, this investigation pursued this question: Are there differences in the statistical techniques used in studies from these JRME subsets: Volumes 1 – 10 (1953 – 1962), Volumes 32 – 41 (1984 – 1993) and Volumes 46 – 55 (1998 – 2007)? Analysis of the accumulated data indicated greater sophistication in the use of various statistical techniques, as well as greater collaboration among scholars.

Howe, Sondra Wieland; Independent Scholar. howex009@umn.edu
“Women Supervisors of Music in the Public Schools, 1900-1950.”

When public high schools expanded in the beginning of the twentieth century, music supervisors were needed to coordinate the programs for vocal music, band, orchestra, and music appreciation. This paper will focus on some outstanding women supervisors to understand their education, details of their vocal and instrumental programs, and involvement in teacher training. Caroline B. Bourgard in Louisville, Kentucky; Gertrude Parsons and Kathryn E. Stone in Los Angeles, California; and Elsie M. Shawe and Matilda Agnes Heck in St. Paul, Minnesota, are examples of supervisors in urban districts with excellent music programs. At the 1907 conference in Keokuk, Iowa, that became the Music Supervisors National Conference, 64% of the founding members were women, and information is available on many of these supervisors. Five presidents of MSNC/MENC in the first half of the twentieth century were music supervisors. Frances Elliott Clark was a supervisor in Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin before her career in music appreciation at Victor Talking Machine. Henrietta G. Baker, supervised music in Baltimore schools before teaching at Peabody Conservatory. Elizabeth Casterton supervised music in Michigan and New York; Mabelle Glenn in Kansas City, Missouri; and Marguerite Vivian Hood combined supervising in Ann Arbor with teaching at the University of Michigan. These careers combined teaching, directing ensembles, writing curriculum, supervising, and training teachers. Today there is a National Council of Supervisors of Music Education with a mission of improving school music education for all children, but the role of the supervisor has changed.

Killian, Janice N.; Texas Tech University. janice.killian@ttu.edu
Dye, Keith G.; Texas Tech University.
“Student Teachers Reflect: Perspectives on a Learner-Centered Model of Music Teacher Preparation.”

This study continues our longitudinal examination of learner-centered teacher preparation at a large southwestern university. We asked those just completing student teaching (N=15) to compare their current teaching skills with their pre-student teaching skills. We then evaluated their written reflections relative to progress through the postulated Fuller (1969) stages of new teacher development (focus first on self, then subject matter, finally student progress). Teachers viewed four videos of their own teaching completed before student teaching, and then reflected upon their current teaching skills. Results indicated that teachers believed they were more skilled now especially in areas of leadership, confidence, eye contact, conducting and use of proximity. Personal areas of strength included planning and rapport; areas of weakness included teaching techniques and classroom management. Free-responses focused on the first of Fuller’s stages, (comments about self=36). Twenty-eight responses related to Fuller’s second stage (music/teaching =27 and implied student focus =11). No teacher mentioned student learning; thus no student teacher responded with comments indicating entry into Fuller’s third postulated stage of teacher development. Results are discussed in terms of future research and strategies leading to improved teacher preparation.