2010 Research Poster Session I Abstracts – Part 2

2010 Biennial Music Educators National Conference Research Poster Session Abstracts

 

Research Poster Session I Research Poster Session II Research Poster Session III
Part 1   •   Part 2 Part 1   •   Part 2 Part 1   •   Part 2

Research Poster Session I, Part 2

Madsen, Clifford; Florida State University. cmadsen@fsu.edu
Kelly, Steve N.; Florida State University.
“Music Education Students as Cross-Age Tutors in an After School Setting.”

McCabe, Melissa C.; Towson University. mmccabe@towson.edu
Howard, Sandra A.; Keene State College.
“Pre-Service Music Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Teaching.”

McKoy, Constance L.; UNCG School of Music. clmckoy@uncg.edu
“Cross-Cultural Competence of Student Teachers in Music Education.”

Morrison, Steven J.; School of Music, University of Washington. sjmorris@uw.edu
Demorest, Steven M.; School of Music, University of Washington.
Campbell, Patricia Shehan; School of Music, University of Washington.
Bartolome, Sarah J.; School of Music, Louisiana State University
Roberts, J. Christopher; School of Music, University of Washington
“Effect of Intensive Instruction on Elementary Students’ Memory for Culturally Unfamiliar Music.”

Napoles, Jessica; University of Utah. jessica.napoles@utah.edu
“The effect of lip synching on musicians’ ability to detect errors in a choral score.”

Norris, Charles; Grand Valley State University. norrisc@gvsu.edu
“Elementary Children’s Tonal Awareness as Related to Perception of Tonal Dissonance.”

Norris, Charles; Grand Valley State University. norrisc@gvsu.edu
“The Effects of Descriptive Rubrics on the Reliability of Undergraduate Choral Performance Ratings.”

Riggs, Andrea; Texas Tech University. andrea.riggs@hotmail.com
“The Effect of Choral Director Succession on Festival Ratings in Selected Texas High Schools.”

Rohwer, Debbie; University of North Texas. Debbie.rohwer@unt.edu
“Church musicians’ participation perceptions: Applications to community music.”

Ryan, Christine Brett; Boston University. christineryan@entermail.net
“World Music Pedagogy in the Middle School: A Comparison of Traditional and Indigenous Teaching of Andean Music.”

Sheldon, Deborah; Boyer College of Music and Dance, Temple University. dsheldon@temple.edu
Linda A. Hartley,Linda A. Hartley; Professor and Director of Graduate Music Education, University of Dayton.
“What Color’s Your Baton, Girl? Gender and Ethnicity in Band Conducting.”

Sims, Wendy L; University of Missouri. simsw@missouri.edu
Jeffs, Kenneth C.; University of Missouri.
Barrow, Lloyd H.; University of Missouri.
“Help Wanted: Music Education Positions in Higher Education, 2007-2008.”

Snyder, David W.; Illinois State University. dsnyder@ilstu.edu
“Reflection: How Our Preservice Teachers Perceive Their Own Teaching Abilities.”

Sorenson, Burke; Utah State Office of Education. burkesorenson@gmail.com
“Alternative Routes to Licensure for Elementary and Secondary Music Teachers.”

Tutt, Kevin; Grand Valley State University. tuttk@gvsu.edu
“The effect of using musical terms in ensemble rehearsal on middle school students’ written criteria of music.”

Valerie, Slattery; University of Kansas. valerieslattery@hotmail.com
“Elementary General Music Teachers’ Perceptions on A Cappella Singing in the Music Classroom.”

VanWeelden, Kimberly; Florida State University. kvanweelden@fsu.edu
Whipple,Jennifer; Charleston Southern University.
“Educational Supports for Students with Special Needs: Preservice Music Educators’ Perceptions.”

Waggoner, Dori T.; Kansas State University. dtw@ksu.edu
“Effects of listening conditions, error types, and ensemble textures on error detection skills.”

Wapnick, Joel; McGill University. jwapnick@music.mcgill.ca
Keech, Kristina; McGill University.
Gina Ryan,Gina Ryan; graduate student, McGill University.
“Preferences for Piano Versus Harpsichord Performances in Renaissance and Baroque Keyboard Music.”

 


 

Madsen, Clifford; Florida State University. cmadsen@fsu.edu
Kelly, Steve N.; Florida State University.
“Music Education Students as Cross-Age Tutors in an After School Setting.”

An entire class of music education students (20) served as tutors in a cross-age reading program for fourth and fifth grade students in an after school program at an elementary school. The qualitative study progressed in several phases: 1) Two experts with over 60 years collective teaching experience were ask to recommend the “best book available for a cross-age tutoring project.” The book selected was a children’s classic Pinballl by Betsy Byers, an award winning children’s author. 2) College age tutors were asked to read the book and write their reactions to its content and give their opinion concerning how it could be used by a teacher. Overall, tutors thought it was a realistic, touching, moving, positive, useful life lesson book and could be used to teach children positive social skills. 3) Tutees were randomly paired with children who were identified as lacking reading skills and/or reading fluency. 4) Each dyad participated in a one-on-one session once a week (30-50 minutes) for ten weeks or until the book was completed. The tutors’ task was to read to or along with the tutee or to let the tutee read aloud to the tutor. 5) At the end of the 10-week period, each child was asked to write a short paragraph describing the reading experience. 6) Tutors were asked to write an extended essay describing the entire experience. Results are presented in a narrative manner tracing changes evidenced by the college students across time.

McCabe, Melissa C.; Towson University. mmccabe@towson.edu
Howard, Sandra A.; Keene State College.
“Pre-Service Music Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Teaching.”

The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate pre-service music teachers’ perceptions of effective teaching. Undergraduate music education students (N=96) enrolled in a teacher-training program at 2 eastern universities served as subjects for the investigation. Participants viewed and rated elements of teaching effectiveness of brief teaching excerpts of four pre-service music teachers’ peer-teaching demonstrations presented within the context of an elementary instrumental music methods class. Survey questions were based on the ten Interstate New Teachers Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) principles, adopted by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). No main effects were found for DVD excerpt order (F(1) = 1.74, p < .05) or institutional affiliation (F(1) = 1.22, p < .05). Significant differences were identified among participants’ collective responses to survey questions (F(1) = 8439.56, p < .05). A Post hoc analysis revealed that students perceived teachers A and C as being more effective than teachers B and D. A Friedman two-way ANOVA indicated no significant difference among the mean rank orders of the four teachers. These results seemed to indicate that participants mostly agreed upon which teaching excerpts they perceived as being effective. A series of Pearson r correlations revealed positive and statistically significant (p < .05) relationships between ratings of overall perceived teacher effectiveness and selected INTASC Principals. Results suggest that teachers who employ a variety of instructional strategies, actively engage students in learning, and who are able to clearly communicate expectations to students may be perceived as effective educators.

McKoy, Constance L.; UNCG School of Music. clmckoy@uncg.edu
“Cross-Cultural Competence of Student Teachers in Music Education.”

The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-cultural competence of music education majors enrolled in student teaching. Study participants (N = 86) from 19 colleges and universities in the Southeastern United States completed a survey designed to assess their cross-cultural competence as related to: factors (a) fostering and (b) constraining readiness for teaching in culturally diverse educational environments, and (c) educational experiences during teacher preparation relative to multicultural education and multicultural music education. Study results indicated that the majority of respondents were aware of how cultural differences may impact their teaching and students’ learning, had encountered music of a variety of cultures in their own music education, had received specific instruction on creating and executing multicultural music experience for students, and had opportunities to be involved with projects related to multicultural music education. Study results neither confirmed nor negated that respondents held attitudes and beliefs hindering their readiness to teach in culturally diverse educational environments. Results of the current study suggest that additional investigations involving a larger sample are warranted and should include an examination of the effects of specific demographic variables on music student teachers’ cross-cultural competence.

Morrison, Steven J.; School of Music, University of Washington. sjmorris@uw.edu
Demorest, Steven M.; School of Music, University of Washington.
Campbell, Patricia Shehan; School of Music, University of Washington.
Bartolome, Sarah J.; School of Music, Louisiana State University
Roberts, J. Christopher; School of Music, University of Washington
“Effect of Intensive Instruction on Elementary Students’ Memory for Culturally Unfamiliar Music.”

Both adults and children have demonstrated better memory for novel music from their own music culture than from an unfamiliar music culture. It was the purpose of this study to determine whether this “enculturation effect” could be mediated through an extended immersive instructional unit. Fifth-grade students (N = 143) in four intact general music classrooms (two each at two elementary schools in a large U.S. city) took part in an 8-week curriculum exclusively concentrated on Turkish music. Two additional 5th-grade classes at the same schools served as controls and did not receive the immersive instruction. Prior to and following the 8-week unit all classes completed a music memory test that included Western and Turkish music examples. Comparison of pretest and posttest scores revealed that all participants were significantly more successful overall on the second test administration. Consistent with previous findings, participants were significantly less successful remembering items from the unfamiliar music culture, a result that was consistent across test administrations and between instruction and control groups. It appears that the effect of enculturation on music memory is well established early in life and resistant to modification even through extended instructional approaches.

Napoles, Jessica; University of Utah. jessica.napoles@utah.edu
“The effect of lip synching on musicians’ ability to detect errors in a choral score.”

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lip synching (moving one’s mouth but not making audible noise) would affect musicians’ ability to detect errors in a choral score. University music education majors (N=60) listened to eight excerpts of choral music that included purposefully inserted errors and were asked to lip sync the text while listening to four of the excerpts and just to listen to the other four excerpts. They then listed any errors they perceived in the score. Results indicated that lip synching had no effect on musicians’ ability to detect errors (p > .05). Participants correctly identified significantly more errors in the soprano line than in the bass line (p < .001). There was a significant 3-way interaction between order, lip sync condition, and voicing, indicating that participants performed better on the second task, irrespective of lip sync condition, but only with soprano errors.

Norris, Charles; Grand Valley State University. norrisc@gvsu.edu
“Elementary Children’s Tonal Awareness as Related to Perception of Tonal Dissonance.”

The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary children’s aural awareness of tonality by measuring their abilities to detect dissonance in major tonality using the author-created Tonal Dissonance Detection Test (TDDT). The TDDT, comprised of 26 short tunes, requires subjects to determine presence or absence of dissonances, each created by placing a flatted (minor) third against an accompanying major I, IV or V chord. A between subjects one-way ANOVA of TDDT test scores of 1st- through 6th-grade children (N = 312) in a Midwestern suburban school revealed that 1st- and 2nd-graders’ abilities to detect dissonances were significantly weaker than those of third, fourth, fifth and sixth graders. These findings are consistent with related, but limited study of the perception of tonality and tonal expectancies in children and adults. Given the homogeneity of the sample, the longevity of the music instructor, the school’s sequential Kodály-based curriculum and conclusions of prior research, discussion considered the impact of musical instruction and musical development on the ability to perceive tonality. The author suggested that a distinction between the two aforementioned constructs might be ascertained in future research by comparing the same perceptual skills of children from Western cultures with children of non-Western cultures.

Norris, Charles; Grand Valley State University. norrisc@gvsu.edu
“The Effects of Descriptive Rubrics on the Reliability of Undergraduate Choral Performance Ratings.”

The purpose of this study was to compare the inter-rater reliabilities of two differing choral adjudication forms as utilized by ten third-year choral music education majors enrolled in a medium-sized Midwestern university. Two panels, comprised of five students each, assessed the audio performances of ten choirs using both a limitedly descriptive but commonly-used choral adjudication form (Form A) and a form replete with specific descriptors (Form B). To control for order effect, the researcher employed a counter-balanced condition order design in which the panels used the two forms in opposite orders. A factorial analysis of variance indicated no effects for the order in which the forms were used, but determined that both panels rated the choirs significantly lower with Form B in total score and overall rating. Additional analyses using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) revealed that in both panels Form B yielded greater agreement in most dimensions (tone, intonation, rhythm, balance, blend, interpretation diction), total score and overall rating. Results resembled those of a prior study with experienced choral adjudicators, except that the ICCs of the two undergraduate panels were considerably lower than those of their experienced counterparts. Additionally, undergraduates rated choirs more severely with Form B as did their experienced adjudicator counterparts. The author discusses the educative potential of descriptive rubrics for training pre-service music educators and suggests further study that considers the extent to which accomplishment in certain musical skills (aural perception, sight singing, conducting, e.g.) influences or contributes to judging accuracy and reliability.

Riggs, Andrea; Texas Tech University. andrea.riggs@hotmail.com
“The Effect of Choral Director Succession on Festival Ratings in Selected Texas High Schools.”

This study applies similar techniques as used in sporting league studies to evaluate choral director successions as measured by 20 years of ratings at a state-wide choral concert and sight-reading festival. Data collected represents a diverse cross-section of assigned regions with varied geographical locations: urban and rural school settings, differing high school classifications, socioeconomic, and ethnic populations. Schools meeting selection criteria were chosen (N=48) and included 2,824 different choirs across 20 years. Festival records were obtained and analyzed to determine the following: (1) if the type of director succession influenced the number of superior ratings in concert (2) if a significant change in ratings existed between the previous director and the new director, (3) how ratings improved or declined between the year of the former director and the first year of the new director and (4) if type of succession had any bearing on the number of superior ratings received in sight-reading. Results indicated that a significant number of rating changes occurred between the year of succession and the second year after succession (X2 [2, 196] = 58.42 p< .0001), and that concert ratings improved between the year of succession and the following year (X2 [2, 81] = 14.42 p= .0001). Results also indicated that a significant number of sight-reading ratings improved between the year of succession and the following year (X2 [2, 81] = 11.12 p = .0009). Results are discussed in terms of implications for the practicing choral educator as well as future research.

Rohwer, Debbie; University of North Texas. Debbie.rohwer@unt.edu
“Church musicians’ participation perceptions: Applications to community music.”

While studies have documented the ubiquitous nature of church choirs as music-making activities in the community, there is a need for an investigation of how church choirs can serve as a model to understand more completely the gestalt concept of community music. There is a need for church choir members to describe their own musical backgrounds, and to provide their perceptions of the issues related to church choir participation in order to obtain a more complete picture of church choir as a community endeavor. The purpose of the study was to describe the participation perceptions of church choir musicians. Twenty-two choral musicians in 3 churches were interviewed. In the current study there were similarities and differences in approach between church choir and what is commonly known of other community music organizations. The results align with past research on community music ensembles in terms of musical and social perceptions of the participants, including concepts of recruitment, attendance, and diverse musicianship levels. There was, however, a notable difference with past studies in that worship was an interwoven, integral component of the members’ perceptions. Because of this worship component, church music may have a different feel than other community groups, with an emphasis on an external, unifying force making the activity look more like a service endeavor than a leisure activity. Practical applications to music education settings are addressed in the article.

Ryan, Christine Brett; Boston University. christineryan@entermail.net
“World Music Pedagogy in the Middle School: A Comparison of Traditional and Indigenous Teaching of Andean Music.”

World music pedagogy deals with how music is taught and transmitted, as well as learned and received, within cultures. The effectiveness of world music pedagogy in the middle school general music classroom to aid in student understanding of musical practice was the focus of this study. Research questions included: (1) What is the difference in learning outcome between students who learn music from a different culture through the traditional European art music pedagogy and students who learn the same music through that culture’s method of musical transmission? (2) What evidence is there that learning through world music pedagogy can better connect the original music culture and the instructional culture of the general music classroom?
During this study, one 6th grade general music class made Andean highland music through composition, singing and playing the sikuri (raft pipes played in interlocking fashion) using the oral/aural transmission process of indigenous Andean musicians during a 15 lesson unit, while another class was presented with the same song material taught in a more traditional Western European musical style, including printed music and a focus on the elements of music during a concurrent 15 lesson unit.
Students in the “Andean group” were able to replicate the musical form and style with more authenticity than students in the “Western European group”. These students also created music communally and aurally with a higher degree of success, closely connecting the instructional culture of their music classroom to the music culture of the Andean highlands.

Sheldon, Deborah; Boyer College of Music and Dance, Temple University. dsheldon@temple.edu
Linda A. Hartley,Linda A. Hartley; Professor and Director of Graduate Music Education, University of Dayton.
“What Color’s Your Baton, Girl? Gender and Ethnicity in Band Conducting.”

Studied were trends in instrumental music education leadership among women and minorities from 1996 until 2008. Gender data of primary band conductors at the Midwest Band and Orchestra Clinic from 1947 were reviewed by year and ensemble level. Also investigated was the distribution of gender and ethnicity among graduate students studying wind band conducting from 1999 until 2008 and participants in conducting workshops or symposium from 1996 until 2008. Ethnicities were categorized as: American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian/Pacific Islander, Black, Hispanic, White, and Other. Findings revealed that men overwhelmingly outnumbered women as primary conductors throughout the history of the Midwest Band and Orchestra Clinic. Women were more represented at the junior high/middle school level than any other. Similar distributions were found among graduate wind band conducting student populations and among conducting symposium/workshop attendees. White participants dominated graduate study and workshops populations. Results underscore the importance of revisiting reasons for the dearth of females and people of color in band conducting leadership positions and begin discussion of actions that would ameliorate inequities.

Sims, Wendy L; University of Missouri. simsw@missouri.edu
Jeffs, Kenneth C.; University of Missouri.
Barrow, Lloyd H.; University of Missouri.
“Help Wanted: Music Education Positions in Higher Education, 2007-2008.”

The purpose of this study was to document and describe the characteristics of college and university music education positions that were available and advertised during the 2007-2008 school year. Information for all jobs listed in the Chronicle of Higher Education and/or the College Music Society’s Music Vacancy List (N = 112) was compiled with respect to a number of variables, including where the notice was placed, job title, rank and tenure status, geographic location, applicant requirements, and job responsibilities. Data were compared with results of studies from the 1980s and 1990s. Findings indicated that the typical job opening in 2007-2008 was for an assistant professor in an administrative unit labeled “music” or “fine arts” at a public institution in the states covered by the East, North Central, and Southern Divisions of MENC. More than three-fourths of the potential employers expected their candidates to have pre-college teaching experience, and a doctorate completed or in progress. The most frequently listed course responsibility was Introduction to Music Education, and teaching methods courses at both the undergraduate and graduate levels comprised an important component of the teaching responsibilities. The most commonly mentioned responsibility listed in the vacancy notices for music education faculty was supervision and/or placement of student teachers. Results are informative for individuals seeking faculty positions as well as for college and university faculty preparing graduate students who will be applying for faculty positions.

Snyder, David W.; Illinois State University. dsnyder@ilstu.edu
“Reflection: How Our Preservice Teachers Perceive Their Own Teaching Abilities.”

Most university programs ask their preservice music educators to do some form of small or large group instruction as part of their program before the student teaching semester(s). One of the tools used to deepen these preservice teaching experiences and consequently the pedagogical knowledge for these teachers is to have them reflect on their teaching episodes. Video self-reflection is a tool that allows the preservice teacher to examine their own teaching objectively and to make the reflective comments of others come to life. Excerpts of reflections taken from preservice music teachers watching video clips of their teaching are presented in this paper. Some of the areas where this type reflection proved effective for improving instruction were: 1.) reducing the amount of teacher talking and increasing the amount of student playing, 2.) structuring of the lesson, and 3.) attention to student playing errors. Study of these reflective comments may also suggest that teachers-in-training must progress through the preliminary stages of self-focus and lesson structure before being able to comment on error detection and correction.

Sorenson, Burke; Utah State Office of Education. burkesorenson@gmail.com
“Alternative Routes to Licensure for Elementary and Secondary Music Teachers.”

As greater numbers of public and private schools seek music teachers who are fully qualified in accordance with NCLB, fully competent professional musicians without licenses are experiencing greater difficulty teaching students in group settings in our nation’s schools. This poster session looks at licensing requirements for NCLB with regards to elementary and secondary music teachers and suggests alternative ways in which professional musicians can contribute to public school music instruction.

Tutt, Kevin; Grand Valley State University. tuttk@gvsu.edu
“The effect of using musical terms in ensemble rehearsal on middle school students’ written criteria of music.”

This study examined the effect of using musical terms in rehearsal on the number of musical terms used in ensemble members’ written evaluation of a selected composition. The subjects (N = 93) for this study were members of two eighth grade bands at one middle school in the Midwest. The students in each band were given the same piece of music. Over an eight-week time span one band was rehearsed using musical terms and the other was rehearsed using non-musical terms. At the end of the eight weeks, both bands performed the works separately and then each student in each band wrote an evaluation of the work. Results showed little difference in the use of terms from the two ensembles. Implications for further research are discussed.

Valerie, Slattery; University of Kansas. valerieslattery@hotmail.com
“Elementary General Music Teachers’ Perceptions on A Cappella Singing in the Music Classroom.”

The purpose of this study was to identify teacher self-reported behavior with regard to a cappella singing in elementary general music classrooms, and to investigate teacher opinion of the relative importance of singing with and without accompaniment. From the population of all general music teachers listed as members of MENC: The National Association for Music Education, 2,000 were contacted by email and asked to complete a survey concerning the use of a cappella singing in the elementary general music classroom. From the 350 educators who responded, the results gathered were analyzed using non-parametric tests. Respondents indicated that a majority of class time was spent in singing a cappella, and that it was more important than any other aspect of music education listed in the survey. The most valuable purpose for using a cappella singing in the classroom was for ear training, and the teacher’s voice was the method most often used for giving a starting pitch. This points to a necessity for current and future music educators to have competency in singing a cappella with and for their students.

VanWeelden, Kimberly; Florida State University. kvanweelden@fsu.edu
Whipple,Jennifer; Charleston Southern University.
“Educational Supports for Students with Special Needs: Preservice Music Educators’ Perceptions.”

Given previous concerns of music educators regarding their perceptions of inadequate preparation to work with special learners, it is important to identify those strategies which are most beneficial to beginning teachers in order to begin the task of ensuring adequate preparation of preservice teachers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate which educational supports preservice music educators found most helpful for teaching students with special needs when acquiring this “new skill.” The preservice teachers were involved in a 10-week field experience teaching students with special needs in one self-contained classroom at a local middle school. After the experience, in which they taught general music concepts to the secondary students, preservice music educators (N = 47) completed a survey regarding educational supports (written words, color coding, echoing, icons, buddy system, other visual aids, and small group assessment stations). Results indicated preservice teachers rated echoing higher than icons and written words lower than all other supports when teaching concepts. For implementing assessments, participants rated echoing lower than all other supports while small groups were rated higher. Further results and implications are discussed.

Waggoner, Dori T.; Kansas State University. dtw@ksu.edu
“Effects of listening conditions, error types, and ensemble textures on error detection skills.”

This study was designed with three main purposes: to compare (a) the effects of two listening conditions on error detection accuracy, (b) error detection responses for rhythm errors and note errors, and (c) the influences of texture on error detection accuracy. Undergraduate music education students (N = 18) listened to purposefully incorrect performances of band literature in two formats, on recordings and while conducting a live ensemble. Note and rhythm errors were inserted into the musical excerpts to investigate responses to different types of errors. Half of the excerpts were played by the full ensemble and half by a single section. Participants served as their own controls by completing the error detection tasks under all conditions.
Results indicated that participants were significantly more successful in identifying errors in the recording condition than in the conducting condition. A significant interaction existed between the error type (note or rhythm) and the ensemble texture (single section or full ensemble). Participants identified rhythm errors more accurately in the single section texture, and diagnosed note errors more successfully in the full ensemble excerpts.

Wapnick, Joel; McGill University. jwapnick@music.mcgill.ca
Keech, Kristina; McGill University.
Gina Ryan,Gina Ryan; graduate student, McGill University.
“Preferences for Piano Versus Harpsichord Performances in Renaissance and Baroque Keyboard Music.”

The purpose of this study was to determine if preferences for recorded piano versus harpsichord renditions of the same music, controlled for tempo and pitch level, would be affected by style, tempo, and musical experience. Two hundred eighty undergraduate music majors and nonmajors heard twelve pairs of excerpts. Each pair consisted of a recording performed on piano and a recording performed on harpsichord. Participants chose the version they preferred, or chose no preference.
Results showed that musical experience affected preferences: preference for piano was significantly stronger for nonmajors than for majors, and for participants who never learned to play a musical instrument than for participants who had at least one year of applied musical experience. Preference for harpsichord was stronger for performers than nonperformers, and approached significance in the major-nonmajor comparison.
Both majors and nonmajors chose harpsichord versions more frequently when excerpts were fast rather than slow, and when they were of Renaissance music than when they were of Baroque music. Harpsichord was preferred over piano on only two of the twelve trials, and both were of fast Renaissance music.