2010 Research Poster Session II Abstracts – Part 1

2010 Biennial Music Educators National Conference Research Poster Session Abstracts

 

Research Poster Session I Research Poster Session II Research Poster Session III
Part 1   •   Part 2 Part 1   •   Part 2 Part 1   •   Part 2


1:15 PM – 2:45 PM
Research Poster Session II

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Abeles, Hal; Columbia Universtiy. abeles@tc.edu
Hafeli, Mary; College of Fine and Performing Arts, SUNY New Paltz.
“Symphony Orchestra Members in Schools: Creativity and Community Service.”

Acklin, Amy; University of Louisville. aiackl01@louisville.edu
“The Effect of Conducting on Ensemble Performance: A “Best-Evidence” Synthesis.”

Belgrave, Melita; UMKC. belgravem@umkc.edu
“The Effect of a Music-Based Intergenerational Program on Children and Older Adults’ Intergenerational Interactions, Cross-Age Attitudes, and Older Adults’ Psychosocial Well-Being.”

Brunkan, Melissa; The University of Kansas. mbrunkan@ku.edu
“Childrens’ and Instructor’s Perceptions of Utilizing Real-time Spectral Analysis in a Voice Exploration Session.”

Bugos, Jennifer; East Carolina University. bugosj@ecu.edu
“The Effects of Musical Training on Processing Speed in Older Adults (ages 60-85).”

Cohen, Mary L.; mary-cohen@uiowa.edu
“Harmony within the Walls: Volunteer Singers’ Attitudes Toward Prisoners in a Community Prison Choir.”

Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; University of Texas-Austin. costagiomi@mail.utexas.edu
Cohen, Leslie; University of Texas-Austin.
Solan, Danielle; University of Texas-Austin.
Brock, Ashley
“Infant discrimination and categorization of melody.”

Dakon, Jacob Michael; The Ohio State University. dakon.1@osu.edu
“Dr. Harvey Samuel Whistler, Jr. (1907-1976): A Pioneering Pedagogue and Researcher in the Field of Instrumental Music Education.”

Darrow, Alice-Ann; Florida State University. aadarrow@fsu.edu
Novak, Julie; Music Educator and Music Therapist, Colorado State School for the Deaf and Blind.
“Musical Gaming: Crossing the Cultural Divide Between Deaf and Hearing.”

Docker, R. Kenneth; The Pennsylvania State University. rkd121@psu.edu
“Access to String Music Education in Relation to a School’s Population, Urbanicity and Title-I Status.”

Elpus, Kenneth; Northwestern University. elpus@northwestern.edu
Abril, Carlos; Northwestern University.
“High School Music Students in the United States: A Demographic Profile.”

Forster, Marilyn; Columbus City Schools. mforst419@aol.com
Horst, Anthony Vander; The Ohio State University.
“Expanded Grandstaff (Superstaff) As a Pedagogical Option to Traditional Grandstaff.”

Fung, C. Victor; Center for Music Education Research, University of South Florida. fung@usf.edu
“Diversity of Dissertation Topics in Music Education Supervised by Experienced Advisors in the United States.”

Hellman, Daniel; Missouri State University. danielhellman@missouristate.edu
McDowell, Carol; Southeast Missouri State University.
“Backgrounds, Teaching Responsibilities, and Motivations of Music Education Candidates Enrolled in Missouri Alternative Certification Programs Music Education Programs.”

Hellman, Daniel; Missouri State University. danielhellman@missouristate.edu
“Effects of Others, Experiences and Informal Discussion on Music Education Majors’ Teacher Identity.”

Henninger, Jacqueline C.; The University of Texas at Austin. jhenninger@mail.utexas.edu
“Effects of Multicultural Music Experiences on Graduate Students’ Reported Preferences, Cultural Familiarities, and Attitudes.”

Henry, Michele L.; Baylor University. Michele_Henry@baylor.edu
“The Effect of Pitch and Rhythm Difficulty on Vocal Sight-Reading Performance.”

Kelly, Steven N.; Florida State University. skelly@admin.fsu.edu
“The Influence of Student Teaching Experiences on Preservice Music Teachers’ Commitments to Teaching.”

 


 

Abeles, Hal; Columbia Universtiy. abeles@tc.edu
Hafeli, Mary; College of Fine and Performing Arts, SUNY New Paltz.
“Symphony Orchestra Members in Schools: Creativity and Community Service.”

This study was designed to better understand the effect on orchestra musicians of their participation in school programs, specifically school programs that have a curriculum focus. The study examined both the skills and understandings developed by orchestra members in these programs and reasons and motivations that orchestra members have for participating in the programs. Forty-seven musicians who were members of two major symphony orchestras took part in the study. Data were collected through individual interviews. Previous research indicated that orchestra musicians have low job satisfaction. The results indicated that participating in these education programs provides rewards that appear to make musicians view of their positions as symphony members more positively. Specifically, they value the skills they have developed as they have refined their presentations for classrooms, they value the opportunity for them to express their creativity that developing their presentations have provided, they value the relationships they have developed with schools and children, and they value the opportunity to reach out and serve the community in new ways. It may be that orchestras who wish to improve the experiences of symphony musicians should consider providing opportunities for their musicians to participate in educational programs that are demanding in ways that are similar to the programs described in this study.

Acklin, Amy; University of Louisville. aiackl01@louisville.edu
“The Effect of Conducting on Ensemble Performance: A “Best-Evidence” Synthesis.”

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of conducting on ensemble performance through the meta-analytic techniques of “best-evidence synthesis.” Developed by Robert Slavin (1986), this process compares similar studies through the common statistical metric of effect size. Results can then be discussed for practical applications in the relative terms of small effect size: d = .2; medium effect size: d = .5; and large effect size: d = .8 (Cohen, 1977).

Twenty-three studies, divided into five categories, met the inclusion criteria. Results from studies examining expressive versus nonexpressive conducting on the impact of ensemble sound were mixed. While some research suggested that expressive conducting only influences listener perceptions, other research indicated that specific conducting gestures do, in fact, shape the sound of an ensemble. Results also suggested a positive and large effect size in the area of conducting-gesture instruction with young ensembles. Other studies examined the effect of conducting in combination with verbal and modeling rehearsal techniques. Conducting gestures were effective, but only within a combination of other rehearsal techniques, suggesting that many skills define conductor competencies. Lastly, studies were examined to explore the synchronization between conductor and ensemble members. Results suggest that musicians with previous conducting experience maintain steadier tempi while following a conductor than musicians without conducting training.

Belgrave, Melita; Assistant Professor of Music Therapy UMKC. belgravem@umkc.edu
“The Effect of a Music-Based Intergenerational Program on Children and Older Adults’ Intergenerational Interactions, Cross-Age Attitudes, and Older Adults’ Psychosocial Well-Being.”

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in a music-based intergenerational music program on cross-age interactions and cross-age attitudes of elementary-age children and older adults, and older adults’ psychosocial well-being. Twenty-one children in the 4th grade volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 12) or control (n = 9) group. Twenty-six older adults from a retirement living facility also volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 14) or control (n = 12) group. Ten 30-minute music sessions occurred in which participants engaged in singing, structured conversation, moving to music, and instrument playing interventions. Data analysis of cross-age interactions revealed that the interventions “structured conversation” and “moving to music” were more effective in eliciting interaction behaviors than the interventions “singing” and “instrument playing.” Standardized measures revealed that children’s attitudes towards older adults improved, though not significantly so, after participation in the intergenerational program. Results of biweekly post-session questionnaires revealed a decrease in negative descriptions of older adults and an increase in positive descriptions of older adults—suggesting a more positive view towards aging. Results revealed that older adults’ attitudes towards children improved significantly after their participation in the intergenerational program. While standardized measures revealed that older adults did not perceive a significant improvement in their psychosocial well-being, their bi-weekly post-session questionnaires showed they perceived increased feelings of usefulness and other personal benefits from the intergenerational interactions. Suggestions for future research, the utility of varied measurement instruments, and implications for practice are discussed.

Brunkan, Melissa; The University of Kansas. mbrunkan@ku.edu
“Childrens’ and Instructor’s Perceptions of Utilizing Real-time Spectral Analysis in a Voice Exploration Session.”

Previous studies have explored the use of real-time visual spectral feedback with adult and teenage singers. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the perceptions of children (N= 54), ages 7-13 years, relative to the use of visual feedback provided by real-time spectral analysis software (VoceVista) in a voice exploration session focusing on gentle onset and articulation of consonants. Participants completed a two-part survey. Part One consisted of demographic items. Among results, (a) 94% of participants had prior musical experience outside of a school setting (b) 89% of participants used a computer at home and/or at school for at least 15 minutes a day, (c) 65% of participants described their computer skills as competent or very competent, and (d) 22% of participants had had private voice lessons, with (e) 33% having other singing performance experiences. Part Two of the survey asked for responses to regarding most and least helpful activities. Participants were also asked to rate the overall helpfulness of VoceVista in teaching gentle onset and articulation on a 5-point Likert scale. Content analysis of responses in Part Two of the survey indicated no negative perceptions of VoceVista overall. Furthermore, 70% of participants thought that VoceVista was the most helpful activity in the voice exploration session. Participant responses to scale items likewise indicated overall favorable perceptions to using VoceVista in teaching gentle onset (M 3.99) and articulation (M 3.93). Results were discussed in terms of limitations of the study and suggestions for further research.

Bugos, Jennifer; East Carolina University. bugosj@ecu.edu
“The Effects of Musical Training on Processing Speed in Older Adults (ages 60-85).”

We examined the effects of music making and music listening on processing speed in healthy older adults (ages 60-85). Seventy participants were recruited for research participation. Criteria for study enrollment consisted of being between the ages of 60-85, native English speakers, no history of colorblindness, no prior history of neurological impairment such as stroke or dementia, no difficulty with the movement of their hands, less than three years of prior musical training, and not currently engaged in music reading or musical performance. Participants were matched for age, education, and intelligence to two training groups: music listening instruction and group piano instruction. Participants completed measures of musical aptitude (Advanced Measures of Music Audiation), intelligence (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence), and processing speed (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test) pre and post-music instruction. Participants received weekly music instruction for sixteen weeks. Forty-seven participants (25 piano instruction group; 22 music listening group) completed the study. Results of Repeated Measures (Group X Time) ANOVA on PASAT scores show no interaction effects. However, a t-test to examine differences in performance between overall pre and post-testing results shows significantly enhance processing speed performance for both groups. Individuals participating in music programs scored 9.2% higher after music classes and raised compliance scores by 20%. Music instruction may have the capacity to enhance overall processing speed in healthy adults. These data have implications for the design and development of community music programs.

Cohen, Mary L.; mary-cohen@uiowa.edu
“Harmony within the Walls: Volunteer Singers’ Attitudes Toward Prisoners in a Community Prison Choir.”

This study examined the effects of singing in a community prison choir upon volunteer singers’ attitudes toward prisoners and prisoner singers’ experiences of this choral activity. It occurred during an inaugural 12-week season of a choir in a medium security Midwest state prison. Membership included 22 prisoners and 22 volunteers. Volunteers completed an Attitude toward Prisoners Scale before meeting the prisoners and after the group’s first concert. All choir members answered open-ended questions summarizing the choir experience after the concert. Results indicated significant differences between pre and post measurements on the volunteer singers’ Attitudes toward Prisoners Scale. Two primary categories emerged from the open-ended answers after open, axial, and selective coding analyses were completed: relationships with others and self-gratification. The discussion explored interrelationships between these categories and reasoned how findings from social neuroscience may be associated with the discoveries in this study.

Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; University of Texas-Austin. costagiomi@mail.utexas.edu
Cohen, Leslie; University of Texas-Austin.
Solan, Danielle; University of Texas-Austin.
Brock, Ashley
“Infant discrimination and categorization of melody.”

Three experiments with 7-, 11-, and 13-month olds were completed to investigate the development of discrimination and categorization of melody and timbre during infancy. The habituation-novelty procedure was used to measure infants’ attention to 4-measure melodies from J. S. Bach’s Minuets played by different instruments. The findings of our study show a clear developmental trend in infants’ perception of timbre and melody. The discrimination of both parameters is in place by the age of 7 months but melodic discrimination is vulnerable to interference from timbral changes during the first year of life. The categorization of timbre occurs earlier than the categorization of melody: Infants categorize timbre by the age of 7 months and melody at 13 months.

Dakon, Jacob Michael; The Ohio State University. dakon.1@osu.edu
“Dr. Harvey Samuel Whistler, Jr. (1907-1976): A Pioneering Pedagogue and Researcher in the Field of Instrumental Music Education.”

The introduction of instrumental classroom pedagogy into the public school systems of the early-Twentieth Century elicited a surge of pedagogical innovation, experimentation and creativity from music educators around the nation. Dr. Harvey Samuel Whistler, Jr., was an influential pioneering instrumental pedagogue and descriptive researcher during this transitional period. As a violinist, pedagogue, author, composer, historian, and music psychologist, Whistler addressed these subjects and more from many scholarly fronts. Best known today for his homogeneous and chamber methods and collections, Whistler left a legacy comprised of more than 150 methods, collections, compositions, arrangements and other music publications. His methods were influential for their retrospective curriculum and feasibility. Whistler also was one of the first descriptive researchers to systematically analyze the condition of music education in the United States. The culmination of Whistler’s works offer historical perspective on early- to mid-Twentieth Century music educational trends, controversies, and methods, all of which influence modern-day practices in music education.

Darrow, Alice-Ann; Florida State University. aadarrow@fsu.edu
Novak, Julie; Colorado State School for the Deaf and Blind.
“Musical Gaming: Crossing the Cultural Divide Between Deaf and Hearing.”

Musical gaming has become a recent phenomenon exerting tremendous economic, social, and cultural influence. The most familiar medium for gaming is Guitar Hero, a rhythm-based music video game in which players must press the right key at the right time in order to ‘score.’ With over 14 million Guitar Hero units sold since 2005, and bars across the country hosting Guitar Hero nights, musical gaming has become a prominent feature in popular culture. Guitar Hero, the most widely played of the musical video games, has found a special place in deaf culture, primarily because ‘musical’ skill is not dependent upon one’s ability to hear, but rather on one’s visual processing skill and eye-hand coordination. The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of hearing status, experience with musical gaming, and task difficulty on participants’ scores for three guitar tracks of increasing complexity taken from the series, Guitar Hero World Tour (2008). Participants (N = 50) were persons with typical hearing (n = 25) and persons with severe to profound hearing losses (n = 25). Experimental stimuli were guitar tracks programmed for Obstacle 1, the second single off of Interpol’s Turn on the Bright Lights (2002). Results revealed no significant differences between participants’ scores based on hearing status; however, significant differences were found between participants’ scores based on their experience with musical gaming. Participants who indicated they had played many times scored significantly higher than those who had never played or played only a few times. Significant differences were also found between participants’ scores based on the difficulty of the task. Participants’ scores were significantly lower on the difficult guitar track than on the easy or moderate tracks. These data indicate that for individuals who are deaf, musical gaming may be a viable means of musical expression, and to participate in music making in ways similar to and equal to persons with typical hearing.

Docker, R. Kenneth; The Pennsylvania State University. rkd121@psu.edu
“Access to String Music Education in Relation to a School’s Population, Urbanicity and Title-I Status.”

Previous studies have identified school size, the socio-economic status (SES) of the school population, and school urbanicity (whether it is in an urban, rural, or suburban school district) as predictors of the presence of string instruction in a school (Smith, 1997, Hamann, Gillespie & Bergonzi, 2002). The purpose of this study is to explore how these factors affect access to music education and string music instruction in Pennsylvania high schools. Student access to music education was measured as a ratio of music teachers to students in the school. String instruction was measured as a simple dichotomy. Scripted telephone interviews with school administrators were completed to determine staffing numbers and presence of string instruction at 352 high schools. Data on school population, Title I status, and urbanicity were provided by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. A two-way ANOVA was calculated to determine significant differences in access to music education based on in Title-I status and urbanicity, and correlation coefficients were calculated to examine relationships between access to string instruction and Title-I status, urbanicity and school population. Results of the ANOVA showed significant differences (p < .001) for urbanicity, though not for Title-I status. Student-teacher ratios were highest for rural schools, and lowest for schools in large urban districts. Access to string instruction had a strong positive correlation with school population, (p < .001) but a negative correlation with SES, as measured by Title-I status. Results of the study may provide data for advocacy efforts for underserved populations.

Elpus, Kenneth; Northwestern University. elpus@northwestern.edu
Abril, Carlos; Northwestern University.
“High School Music Students in the United States: A Demographic Profile.”

This study sought to construct a national demographic profile of high school music ensemble students in the United States using evidence from the National Center for Education Statistics’ Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). Nationwide, we found that 21% of seniors in the Class of 2004 were enrolled in music ensembles. We found highly significant associations (p < .001) between music ensemble enrollment and many variables, including: SES, race/ethnicity, native language, parents’ level of education, family composition, school urbanicity, standardized test scores, GPA, and both long- and short-term educational goals. Chi-square standardized residuals showed highly significant (p < .001) under-representation among music students for students from the two lower SES quartiles, Hispanic students, students from single-parent/guardian families, non-native English speakers, students whose parents did not attend a 4-year college, students who attend urban schools, students in the three lower quartiles for reading and math standardized test scores, students with GPAs ranging from 0 – 3.0, and students with low educational expectations. White students and Black students were both significantly over-represented (p < .001) among music students, as were students from higher socioeconomic backgrounds, native English speakers, students in the highest standardized test score quartiles, students with GPAs ranging from 3.01 – 4.0, and students with high educational expectations. Our results suggest that music students are not representative of the total population of students, and that future research comparing music to non-music students on a variety of educational measures must, at the very least, control for differences in SES.

Forster, Marilyn; Columbus City Schools. mforst419@aol.com
Horst, Anthony Vander; The Ohio State University.
“Expanded Grandstaff (Superstaff) As a Pedagogical Option to Traditional Grandstaff.”

Using a mixed methodological approach we analyzed the efficacy of an expanded Grandstaff called Superstaff as a pedagogical option to traditional Grandstaff to teach students recognition and identification of the staff lines and spaces, both treble and bass. The sample consisted of 196 students from 4 Midwestern schools (i.e. elementary through college) to assess how well the Superstaff system worked in teaching staff recognition. The test was administered twice as a matched sample design. Grandstaff was administered first as a pre-test/control to all students. Then a treatment was applied to two randomly assigned groups, (i.e. control and treatment). Following the treatment both groups were retested with the identical Granstaff test as their pre-test (carryover effect intended), with all questions containing the correct answers applicable to the treatment material presented for Grandstaff or Superstaff. The results suggest that there is strong statistical evidence that, on average, Superstaff is a superior method for staff recognition compared to the traditional Grandstaff (t=15.06;df=217;p<0.001). The limitations for generalization for the study are; 1) the schools are not randomly selected and they only come from one state, 2) the statistical methods should include a hierarchical linear model to asses nesting. All statistical assumptions for a t-test are confirmed at the student level.

Fung, C. Victor; Center for Music Education Research, University of South Florida. fung@usf.edu
“Diversity of Dissertation Topics in Music Education Supervised by Experienced Advisors in the United States.”

The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of dissertation topics in music education supervised by experienced advisors in relation to their areas of interest. This descriptive content analysis involved 378 doctoral dissertations listed in the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses electronic database supervised by ten experienced dissertation advisors. Advisor biographies were used as a guide to identify their areas of interest. Each dissertation was categorized as within or outside the advisor’s areas of interest and was grouped as qualitative, quantitative, mixed-design, literature-based, or original music composition. Results showed that 69.31% of the dissertations felt within the advisors’ areas of interest and 30.69% felt outside, that is approximately a 7:3 ratio. Findings also showed that 43.92% of the dissertations were quantitative, 25.66% were literature-based, 19.58% were qualitative, and 9.52% used a mixed-design. Results also showed that five of the experienced advisors supervised mostly quantitative dissertations and one supervised mostly literature-based dissertations. Results of a 2×4 Chi-square analysis showed that dissertation topic categories were associated with methodologies used (Chi-square = 40.047, df = 3, p < .001). By far, quantitative dissertations on topics within the advisors’ areas of interest had the biggest share (37.53%), and mixed-design dissertations on topics outside of the advisor’s areas of interest were the fewest (2.41%). While doctoral students should be aware of their dissertation advisor’s areas of interest, they should be able to explore research topics and methodologies that are at a distance from those of the advisor’s interests.

Hellman, Daniel; Missouri State University. danielhellman@missouristate.edu
McDowell, Carol; Southeast Missouri State University.
“Backgrounds, Teaching Responsibilities, and Motivations of Music Education Candidates Enrolled in Missouri Alternative Certification Programs Music Education Programs.”

Data were collected via surveys and semi-structured interviews of music teacher candidates enrolled in three Missouri alternative certification (ATC) programs. Results revealed that candidates (a) described love of music, feeling called to teach, and working with people as reasons to pursue teaching, (b) identified the timeline for completion, financial need, and lifestyle as important enrollment considerations, and (c) indicated that some needed pedagogical content knowledge in music was insufficient. The results are discussed in terms of the role of music teacher education faculty in ATC programs.

Hellman, Daniel; Missouri State University. danielhellman@missouristate.edu
“Effects of Others, Experiences and Informal Discussion on Music Education Majors’ Teacher Identity.”

The purpose of this research was to explore how music education majors perceive influential people, situations and social networks as shaping their desire to teach. In this study, socialization was viewed as a gradual, inductive and interpretive process that occurs through the processes of primary and secondary socialization (Berger & Luckmann, 1966). Seven music education bachelor degree recipients were interviewed on their perceptions of teaching influences during college. Parents, high school teachers, school based mentors and college faculty served the most common significant persons of influence among participants. Influential experiences included stress, encouragement, music experiences, teaching experiences, and religious beliefs. Peers that involved discussing teaching informally included music education majors, other education majors, other college students outside of music and education, and those outside of the higher education institution. The extent and use of informal discussion of teaching issues varied among participants. Some participants discussed teaching issues only among music peers, while others did not appear to discuss teaching issues with music peers beyond activities that were tied to courses. Participants identified that voluntary teaching opportunities beyond course requirements and discussions about teaching issues outside of course requirements influenced their teacher identity.

Henninger, Jacqueline C.; The University of Texas at Austin. jhenninger@mail.utexas.edu
“Effects of Multicultural Music Experiences on Graduate Students’ Reported Preferences, Cultural Familiarities, and Attitudes.”

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a multicultural music class would have an effect on graduate students’ reported music preferences, their level of familiarity with different cultures, their attitudes toward including multicultural music in their curriculum, and their attitudes toward teaching in culturally diverse settings.
Participants were Master’s students (Music Education or Film majors) enrolled in a multicultural music course at a large university in the southwestern region of the country (N = 8). The following ethnic groups were represented: White (n = 5), Asian (n = 2), and Lebanese (n = 1). They completed a questionnaire (pretest) at the beginning of the semester designed to provide data on the aforementioned points. Throughout the semester, participants completed different multicultural activities: reading and discussing relevant research; teaching and observing multicultural music lessons to and with their peers; and participating in presentations given by cultural insiders on the music of other cultures. Participants completed a second questionnaire (posttest) designed to acquire information regarding perceptions of the course and its content. Statements were classified according to content, and frequencies and percentages were calculated.
Posttest responses indicated participants experienced an increase in cultural familiarity, 10 new genres were listed as being preferred, and 38% of participants expressed enthusiasm about teaching in a culturally diverse setting. When asked to describe plans for teaching world music to young learners, participants described the importance of cultural insiders (25%) and the concepts of authenticity, socio-cultural context, and music concepts (50%).

Henry, Michele L.; Baylor University. Michele_Henry@baylor.edu
“The Effect of Pitch and Rhythm Difficulty on Vocal Sight-Reading Performance.”

Singing music at sight is a complex skill, requiring the ability to perform accurately pitch and rhythm simultaneously. Previous research identified difficulty levels for pitch and rhythm skills individually but not in combination. This study sought to determine pitch accuracy when rhythm tasks are present, rhythm accuracy when pitch tasks are present, the relationship between pitch and rhythms tasks occurring concurrently, and significant differences in pitch or rhythm accuracy for those with and without instrumental/piano experience. Pitch and rhythm skills were categorized as easy, medium, or hard, based on pre-established difficulty levels. High school singers (N=252) sang melodies containing tasks with varying combinations of pitch and rhythm difficulty. Results indicate pitch and rhythm skills both retain their relative difficulty levels, regardless of the presence of other factors. Rhythmic success is significantly related to pitch success (p<.0002). Rhythm without pitch success occurs least frequently. Pitch without rhythm success occurs most frequently. Singers appear to give priority to pitch over rhythm, performing pitch correctly at the expense of rhythmic accuracy. Singers with both instrument and piano experience, and singers with piano experience only, scored significantly higher than those with no instrument or piano training (p<.05). Those with instrument and/or piano experience were more proficient at accurately performing pitch and rhythm together than those without experience. Implications for instruction include an emphasis on rhythmic continuity. Future research should explore the pitch and rhythm capabilities for instrumentalists, and the ability of singers to sight read additional musical elements including dynamic and expressive markings.

Kelly, Steven N.; Florida State University. skelly@admin.fsu.edu
“The Influence of Student Teaching Experiences on Preservice Music Teachers’ Commitments to Teaching.”

This investigation sought to measure preservice students’ commitments to teaching music by comparing potential influencing factors frequently encountered in the student teaching experience. The following specific questions were addressed: (1) How committed to teaching were preservice students at the beginning of their student teaching experience compared to the end of this experience? (2) What factors, and the extent of these factors, influenced preservice music teachers’ commitments to teaching at the beginning and at the end of their students teaching experiences? (3) What factors, and the extent of these factors, might influence preservice teachers from not committing to becoming a teacher at the end and at the beginning of their student teaching experiences? and (4) To what extent would an opportunity to perform on a regular basis influence a preservice teacher commitment to teaching music? Using a pre-/post- student teaching experience survey, participants (N = 88) completed a five-point Likert-type scale indicating the extent that factors positively influenced their commitments to teaching or negatively influenced their commitments to become teachers. Results showed the participants’ commitments to teaching were not influenced by their student teaching experience. When asked the extent that regular performance opportunities might influence the participants to choose to perform rather than teach the data showed participants would most likely select to teach.